Overhand-throwing motions can create supraphysiologic stresses on the elbow. Repeated stresses often result in overuse injuries affecting the elbow, which are commonly seen in throwing athletes. Noted problems include medial epicondylitis, valgus extension overload, olecranon stress fractures, ulnar neuritis, and damage to the ulnar collateral ligament. Symptoms of pain or numbness at presentation vary in location depending on the injury. Successful diagnosis is typically made using results of physical examinations of elbow, wrist, and arm extensions; results of tests for valgus instability; and findings radiographs can all help indicate the problem. However, pathological features of these injuries are not always clear, which can complete effective treatment. Baseball pitchers are often discussed when investigating overhand-throwing athletes; yet the current review examines players of various overhandthrowing sports to help assess causes, diagnosis, and treatment of related elbow injuries.
Newhoff, Drew K.. "Elbow Injuries in the Throwing Athlete: A Review." UNM Orthopaedic Research Journal 6, 1 (2017). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/unm_jor/vol6/iss1/17