Pharmaceutical Sciences ETDs


Xian Shen

Publication Date



The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a pharmacists-assisted tobacco cessation program led by New Mexico Pharmaceutical Care Foundation (NMPCF) and to characterize participants quitting patterns during the study period. Data from the program from 2004 to 2011 consisting of 1486 participants were combined for analysis. Point prevalence quit rates were calculated and survival analysis was performed to evaluate program effectiveness. A qualitative case study with participating pharmacists was conducted to explore intervention elements that could impact participants' likelihood of successfully quitting tobacco. Four quitting patterns were defined including immediate quitters, delayed quitters, once quitters, or never quitters. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify patient characteristics associated with quitting patterns. The average point prevalence quit rate at 6 months was 18.7%. The average abstinent time was 76.8 days (standard error = 3.59 days). The probability of a patient being continuously abstinent for 7 days was 89.1%, while the likelihood of being abstinent for 30 days and 180 days were 46.0% and 16.5%, respectively. Patients who were under 18 years old, less educated, less dependent on nicotine, and had higher confidence to quit were more likely to be immediate quitters rather than never quitters. Pharmacists are capable of delivering tobacco cessation services. Patients' likelihood of quitting tobacco depends both on themselves and the intervention they receive. Intensive counseling and close follow-up are important elements of an effective tobacco cessation intervention. Different quitting patterns exist among patients. Patients with different quitting patterns have distinctive characteristics in terms of level of nicotine dependence, pharmacotherapy used, motivational factors and demographic factors. Interventions need to be tailored for patients with different quitting patterns.

First Committee Member (Chair)

Anderson, Joe

Degree Name

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Second Committee Member

Bachyrycz, Amy

Level of Degree


Third Committee Member

Raisch, Dennis

Department Name

College of Pharmacy



Document Type



Smoking cessation--New Mexico, Nicotine addiction--treatment, Pharmacology.