Energy Decentralization and Decarbonization: The Case of Romania and Malta
This article aims to provide useful insights into Romania’s and Malta’s electricity sector, and critically assess the extent to which their current state is conducive to European Union (“EU”) “smart grid” objectives of energy decentralization and decarbonization. The article concludes that Malta has embraced reforms aimed at diversifying the energy sector, including the deployment of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, smart meters and smart grids, all of which are aimed at tackling climate change challenges. In the case of Romania, it enjoys relative energy independence and security vis-à-vis its EU peers, but also other neighboring countries; however, it remains one of the most energy-intensive and polluting EU Member States. At the same time, Romania’s performance in relation to increasing the share of renewable energy sources in energy consumption and electricity production places it among the leaders at the regional and EU levels, particularly in terms of wind-generated power.