Biomphalaria Genome Initiative


  • The international consortium has characterized the genome of the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata.
  • An important motivation for this project is that Biomphalaria glabrata is a major snail host for transmission of human schistosomiasis
  • This site provides a time line of the efforts that have yielded a first genome assembly.
  • The sequence data have been deposited in public databases (GenBank NCBI; Vectorbase)
  • Investigators are encouraged to access the Biomphalaria glabrata genome for study of snail biology and comparative genomics.


  • 2017 May:
    • "Whole genome analysis of a schistosomiasis-transmitting freshwater snail," Nature Communications, 8, Article number: 15451 (2017), doi:10.1038/ncomms15451.
  • Companion papers:
    • "Proteomic analysis of Biomphalaria glabrata plasma proteins with binding affinity to those expressed by early developing larval Schistosoma mansoni, PLOS Pathogens,
    • "The Biomphalaria glabrata DNA methylation machinery displays spatial tissue expression, is differentially active in distinct snail populations and is modulated by interactions with Schistosoma mansoni," PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases ,


    • 2015 Oct -- Publication process
    • 2015 Oct Community-contributed analyses completed, manuscript submission
    • 2013 WebApollo implemented by Vectorbase for Community annotation
    • 2013 Vectorbase hosts, curates annotations and assembly
    • 2013- MGI-supported conference calls support annotation effort
    • 2012 Aug Formation steering committee, organization of internatinal annotation effort for Biomphalaria glabrata genome.
    • 2012 Jun Biomphalaria glabrata genome assembly v4.3 (MGI)
    • 2011 Jul MGI initiates Illumina sequencing of PE gDNA
    • 2011 Jul MGI completes Illumina cDNA sequencing for 12 tissue types of Biomphalaria glabrata
    • 2011 Jun MGI completes ~51x Illumina coverage short gDNA fragments.
    • 2011 May MGI to obtain additional Illumina coverage to improve assembly
    • 2011 Apr PRELIMINARY Biomphalaria glabrata genome assembly v4.0.1 (MGI)
    • 2011 Mar MGI Illumina sequencing of 5 Gb gDNA
    • 2010 Dec MGI to sequence Illumina paired ends (PE; 3kb; 8kb) for improved assembly
    • 2010 Dec Illumina cDNA sequencing for 12 tissue types of Biomphalaria glabrata in progress.
    • 2010 Jun PRELIMINARY Biomphalaria glabrata genome assembly v2.1 (MGI)
    • 2009 Sep MGI LS454 paired end gDNA data (6Gbases), > 23x coverage in NCBI SRA
    • 2009 Jul MGI LS454 gDNA data (17.1Gbases) in NCBI SRA
    • 2009 Feb MGI releases full-length sequence data from several BACs to NCBI
    • 2008 Jan MGI releases 100,304 BAC clone end sequences (BES) from the BG-BBa library to NCBI
    • 2007 November: Biomphalaria glabrata genome project progress meeting at ASTMH 2007
    • 2007 January: RNA, DNA template from selfed BB02 provided to initiate sequencing at MGI
    • 2006 January: Over 46,000 nucleotide database entries for Biomphalaria glabrata
    • 2005 October: Planning meeting for sequencing strategy at McDonnell Genome Institute MGI, St. Louis MO
    • 2005 Planning meeting at NIH, Bethesda MD
    • 2004 August: Biomphalaria glabrata prioritized as genomic sequencing target by NHGRI
    • White paper proposal for genome sequencing Biomphalaria glabrata
    • 2004 August: High quality BAC library (BG-BBa)
    • 2004 January: Mitochondrial genome sequence of Biomphalaria glabrata completed
    • 2003 September: Genome size for Biomphalaria glabrata published (check link below)
    • 2002 October: Prioritization for BAC library publicly posted by NHGRI
    • White paper proposal for BAC library Biomphalaria glabrata
  • Follow

    Submissions from 2006


    rDNA gene region (18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2-28S) of Biomphalaria glabrata, Coen Adema

    Submissions from 2004


    Construction of the BAC library for Biomphalaria glabrata, Coen Adema


    Full-length mitochondrial genome sequence of Biomphalaria glabrata, Coen Adema

    Submissions from 2003


    Genome size of Biomphalaria glabrata, Coen Adema

    Submissions from 2002


    Biomphalaria glabrata field isolate (BB02) collected for construction of BAC library, Coen Adema

    Submissions from 2001


    Rationale for a focus on Biomphalaria glabrata, Coen M. Adema, Eric S. Loker, Fred Lewis, and Matty Knight