The aim of this study is to review the current literature on knee biomechanics during the golf swing, focusing on angles, forces, and moments seen in both the lead and trail limbs. The golf swing is described in terms of the backswing, downswing, and follow-through. Studies consistently show that the directional torque changes in multiple planes, and that both lead and trail knees face significant forces throughout the swing. The high rotational forces and repetitive loads experienced by golfers’ knees pose a potential risk for injury. Fatigue failure to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been postulated to occur from cyclic stress below the ligament’s ultimate strength with each swing. A better understanding of stresses on the ACL and on other structures of the knee can help sports medicine providers develop golf-specific injury prevention training programs, treat nonoperative golf-related injuries, and create postoperative rehabilitation and return-to-play protocols.



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