Psychology ETDs

Publication Date

Spring 4-8-2021


The Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS) is the most commonly used scale to measure domains of color-blind racial ideology (CBRI). CBRI broadly refers to the denial of racism on individual and societal levels. The factor structure of CoBRAS has yet to be rigorously tested to confirm the replicability of the factor structure and demonstrate measurement invariance across multiple groups. This study examined the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and measurement invariance of the CoBRAS across race/ethnicity and gender in 911 diverse college students. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and measurement invariance of the CoBRAS were tested across race/ethnicity (Black, Latinx, and White) and male/female gender. Findings from the CFA indicated that previously published models did not fit these data. Following splitting the sample, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) suggested a two-factor, 20-item CoBRAS was a more appropriate for these data, however, model modification was needed to improve model fit. A modified two-factor, six-item CoBRAS demonstrated reasonable model fit across both samples. Results from measurement invariance testing indicated that the new CoBRAS model achieved configural but not scalar invariance across race/ethnicity and gender. Differing levels of partial scalar invariance were found across groups. These findings suggest caution when comparing CoBRAS scores across groups. Future research is needed to determine the replicability of this factor structure and the measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups and gender.

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First Committee Member (Chair)

Kamilla Venner

Second Committee Member

Steven Verney

Third Committee Member

Matthew Pearson




measurement invariance; race/ethnicity; gender; color-blind racial attitudes.

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