Psychology ETDs

Publication Date

Spring 4-16-2020


American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations experience health disparities in alcohol use outcomes compared to the general population. This thesis examines cultural factors related to alcohol use in 65 reservation-based American Indian (AI) adults enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of culturally tailored contingency management (CM). Generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) was used to analyze the repeated measure, biweekly urine tests of the biomarker, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), across 12 weeks. The relationship between alcohol use (abstinence or heavy drinking) and culturally relevant protective (enculturation, years lived on the reservation) and risk factors (discrimination, historical loss, historical loss symptoms) were examined. There was a negative association between enculturation and probability of submitting a heavy drinking urine sample (OR = 0.973; 95% CI [0.950, 0.996], p = 0.023), indicating enculturation may serve as a protective factor against heavy drinking. The remaining cultural factors were not significantly associated with predicting alcohol samples. Participants who received CM were 74.5% less likely to produce an alcohol positive sample (EtG > 150) than those in control (OR = 0.255; 95% CI = [0.0934, 0.695], p = 0.008). Cultural factors, like enculturation, may be important constructs to examine with AI adults engaged in alcohol treatment.

Degree Name


Level of Degree


Department Name


First Committee Member (Chair)

Kamilla Venner

Second Committee Member

Davood Tofighi

Third Committee Member

Michael McDonell




American Indian adults, alcohol use, contingency management, cultural factors, biomarkers, cultural adaptation

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Psychology Commons