Physics & Astronomy ETDs

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Resting-state fMRI using seed-based connectivity analysis (SCA) typically involves regression of the confounding signals resulting from movement and physiological noise sources. This not only adds additional complexity to the analysis but may also introduce possible regression bias. We recently introduced a computationally efficient real-time SCA approach without confound regression, which employs sliding-window correlation analysis with running mean and standard deviation (meta-statistics). The present study characterizes the confound tolerance of this windowed seed-based connectivity analysis (wSCA), which combines efficient decorrelation of confounding signal events with high-pass filter characteristics that reduce sensitivity to drifts. The confound suppression and the strength of resting-state network (RSN) connectivity were characterized for a range of confounding signal profiles as a function of sliding-window width and scan duration, using simulation and in vivo data. The connectivity strength in six resting-state networks (RSNs) and artifactual connectivity in white matter were compared between wSCA and conventional regression-based SCA (cSCA). The wSCA approach demonstrated scalable confound suppression that increased with decreasing sliding-window width and increasing scan duration in both simulations and in vivo. The confound suppression for sliding-window widths ≤ 15 s was comparable to that of cSCA. Twenty-eight RSNs that were previously reported in a group-ICA study were detected in real-time at scan durations as short as 30 s and with sliding-window widths as short as 4 s. The inter- and intra- network connectivity dynamics of the 28 resting-state networks were studied in real-time and self-repeating connectivity patterns were identified. The wSCA is further investigated offline to study the strength and temporal fluctuations in connectivity using 28 single-region seeds and 28 multi-region seed clusters to measure inter-regional connectivity (IRC) in 140 functional brain regions and inter-network connectivity (INC) among the hubs of 28 RSNs. Multi-region seed IRC maps displayed smaller temporal fluctuations and stronger resting-state connectivity compared with single-region seed IRC maps. Dual thresholding of the meta-statistics maps demonstrated higher spatio-temporal IRC stability in auditory, sensorimotor, and visual cortices compared to other brain regions. The group averaged INC matrices for single-region seeds were consistent with the functional network connectivity matrices (FNCMs) presented in the aforementioned group-ICA study. Furthermore, we extended the mapping of functional connectivity to the whole-brain connectivity fingerprints. In combination with novel brain parcellation methods and advanced machine learning algorithms, wSCA can aid in studying the spatial and temporal connectivity dynamics of the resting-state connectivity. The robust confound tolerance, high temporal resolution, and compatibility with real-time high-speed fMRI, make this approach suitable for monitoring data quality, neurofeedback, and clinical research studies involving disease related changes in functional connectomics.

Degree Name


Level of Degree


Department Name

Physics & Astronomy

First Committee Member (Chair)

Caprihan, Arvind

Second Committee Member

Oprea, Tudor

Third Committee Member


Project Sponsors

Department of Physics and Astronomy Department of Neurology National Institute of Health




Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Resting-state Dynamcis, Connectivity in the Human Brain, Sliding-window real-time connectivity analysis, Brain

Document Type