Public Administration ETDs

Publication Date



Program budgeting is, in effect, the generic term for a major management-oriented reform movement. It appears under various titles including "Performance Management Systems," which is the most recent of a long and never-ending list. Each new approach relies heavily on previous systems and attempts, through minor modifications and considerable verbage, to correct past deficiencies. Pressure for more and improved services during a period of austerity in the public sector has produced a climate conducive to change. Therefore, with greater chance for implementation, the current reform movement will have a major impact on the federal bureaucracy. The impact of program budgeting on the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife will prove highly significant in several areas. First, it will result in a greater centralization of authority in an agency that was highly decentralized even to the point where there was little opportunity for central coordination. Secondly, major structural changes will most likely occur as the organization adjusts to the program framework. In the process, the center of power will probably shift from the division chiefs to the program managers. In the budgeting procedure, the appropriations and line item categories will be reduced, providing management with increased discretion in fiscal matters. Program budgeting and management by objectives usually produces greater central control and authority. Some employees are apt to consider this “autocratic management,” resulting in reduced morale, which could become a major obstacle to increased production. In this study it is suggested that the benefits of management by objectives can be achieved and, at the same time, employee resistance reduced by management giving greater attention to participation by employees in decisions that affect their welfare. It is recommended that the Bureau proceed with program budgeting, but in the process: (1) not oversell the system, for this could defeat its purpose; (2) explore other areas as a means of increasing production; (3) attempt to stimulate motivation through greater employee participation; and (4) continue to support advanced academic training in public administration.

Degree Name

Public Administration

Level of Degree


Department Name

School of Public Administration

First Committee Member (Chair)

Donald Winston Smithburg

Second Committee Member

Gerald Joseph Boyle

Third Committee Member

Albert H. Rosenthal



Document Type