Mechanical Engineering ETDs

Publication Date



This thesis presents reliability analysis of indium interconnects and Under Bump Metallization (UBM) in flip chip devices. Flip chip assemblies with the use of bump interconnections are frequently used, especially in high density, three-dimensional electronic devices. Currently there are many methods for interconnect bumping, all of which require UBM. The UBM is required for interconnection, diffusion resistance and quality electrical contact between substrate and device. Bonded silicon test vehicles were comprised of Indium bumps and three UBM compositions: Ti/Ni/Au (200\xc5/1000\xc5/500\xc5), Ti/Ni (200\xc5/1000\xc5), Ni (1000\xc5). UBM and indium were deposited by evaporation and exposed to unbiased accelerated temperature cycling(-55°C to 125°C, 15°C/min ramp rate). Finite Element Analysis (FEA) simulations were used to gain understanding of non-linear strain behavior of indium interconnects during temperature cycling. Experimental testing coupled with FEA simulations facilitated cycle-to-failure calculations. FEA results show plastic strain concentrations within indium bump below failure limits. It has been demonstrated that fabrication of Ti/Ni/Au, Ti/Ni, and Ni UBM stacks performed reliably within infant mortality failure region.


Reliability, Microelectronics, Indium, Under Bump Metallization

Degree Name

Mechanical Engineering

Level of Degree


Department Name

Mechanical Engineering

First Committee Member (Chair)

Tehrani, Mehran

Second Committee Member

Bauer, Todd

Third Committee Member

Homeijer, Sara

Fourth Committee Member

Young, Nathan


Sandia National Laboratories

Document Type