Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

n-Valued Refined Neutrosophic Logic and Its Applications to Physics

Florentin Smarandache, University of New Mexico


In this paper we present a short history of logics: from particular cases of 2-symbol or numerical valued logic to the general case of n-symbol or numerical valued logic. We show generalizations of 2-valued Boolean logic to fuzzy logic, also from the Kleene’s and Lukasiewicz’ 3-symbol valued logics or Belnap’s 4-symbol valued logic to the most general n-symbol or numerical valued refined neutrosophic logic. Two classes of neutrosophic norm (n-norm) and neutrosophic conorm (n-conorm) are defined. Examples of applications of neutrosophic logic to physics are listed in the last section. Similar generalizations can be done for n-Valued Refined Neutrosophic Set, and respectively nValued Refined Neutrosopjhic Probability.