## Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

Book

2005

#### Abstract

In this book, for the first time we introduce the notions of Ngroups, N-semigroups, N-loops and N-groupoids. We also define a mixed N-algebraic structure. We expect the reader to be well versed in group theory and have at least basic knowledge about Smarandache groupoids, Smarandache loops, Smarandache semigroups and bialgebraic structures and Smarandache bialgebraic structures. The book is organized into six chapters. The first chapter gives the basic notions of S-semigroups, S-groupoids and S-loops thereby making the book self-contained. Chapter two introduces N-groups and their Smarandache analogues. In chapter three, Nloops and Smarandache N-loops are introduced and analyzed. Chapter four defines N-groupoids and S-N-groupoids. Since the N-semigroup structures are sandwiched between groups and groupoids, the study can be carried out without any difficulty. Mixed N-algebraic structures and S-mixed algebraic structures are given in chapter five. Some problems are suggested in chapter six. It is pertinent to mention that several exercises and problems (Some in the form of proof to the theorems are given in all the chapters.) A reader who attempts to solve them will certainly gain a sound knowledge about these concepts. We have given 50 problems for the reader to solve in chapter 6. The main aim of this book is to introduce new concepts and explain them with examples there by encouraging young mathematics to pursue research in this direction. Several theorems based on the definition can be easily proved with simple modification. Innovative readers can take up that job.

Hexis, Phoenix

#### Keywords

algebraic structures, n-algebraic structures, neutrosophic logic