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CONTEXT.—: Pathology studies using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have focused on neoplasms, while studies in inflammatory pathology are rare. We previously demonstrated a CNN that differentiates reactive gastropathy, Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG), and normal gastric mucosa.

OBJECTIVE.—: To determine whether a CNN can differentiate the following 2 gastric inflammatory patterns: autoimmune gastritis (AG) and HPG.

DESIGN.—: Gold standard diagnoses were blindly established by 2 gastrointestinal (GI) pathologists. One hundred eighty-seven cases were scanned for analysis by HALO-AI. All levels and tissue fragments per slide were included for analysis. The cases were randomized, 112 (60%; 60 HPG, 52 AG) in the training set and 75 (40%; 40 HPG, 35 AG) in the test set. A HALO-AI correct area distribution (AD) cutoff of 50% or more was required to credit the CNN with the correct diagnosis. The test set was blindly reviewed by pathologists with different levels of GI pathology expertise as follows: 2 GI pathologists, 2 general surgical pathologists, and 2 residents. Each pathologist rendered their preferred diagnosis, HPG or AG.

RESULTS.—: At the HALO-AI AD percentage cutoff of 50% or more, the CNN results were 100% concordant with the gold standard diagnoses. On average, autoimmune gastritis cases had 84.7% HALO-AI autoimmune gastritis AD and HP cases had 87.3% HALO-AI HP AD. The GI pathologists, general anatomic pathologists, and residents were on average, 100%, 86%, and 57% concordant with the gold standard diagnoses, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS.—: A CNN can distinguish between cases of HPG and autoimmune gastritis with accuracy equal to GI pathologists.