Guide to the Diagnosis of Myeloid Neoplasms: A Bone Marrow Pathology Group Approach

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OBJECTIVES: The practicing pathologist is challenged by the ever-increasing diagnostic complexity of myeloid neoplasms. This guide is intended to provide a general roadmap from initial case detection, often triggered by complete blood count results with subsequent blood smear review, to final diagnosis.

METHODS: The integration of hematologic, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features into routine practice is standard of care. The requirement for molecular genetic testing has increased along with the complexity of test types, the utility of different testing modalities in identifying key gene mutations, and the sensitivity and turnaround time for various assays.

RESULTS: Classification systems for myeloid neoplasms have evolved to achieve the goal of providing a pathology diagnosis that enhances patient care, outcome prediction, and treatment options for individual patients and is formulated, endorsed, and adopted by hematologists/oncologists.

CONCLUSIONS: This guide provides diagnostic strategies for all myeloid neoplasm subtypes. Special considerations are provided for each category of testing and neoplasm category, along with classification information, genetic testing requirements, interpretation information, and case reporting recommendations based on the experience of 11 Bone Marrow Pathology Group members.