Acute Leukemias with Complex Karyotype Show a Similarly Poor Outcome Independent of Mixed, Myeloid or Lymphoblastic Immunophenotype: A Study from the Bone Marrow Pathology Group

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Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a heterogenous group of acute leukemias characterized by leukemic blasts that express markers of multiple lineages. The revised 4th edition WHO classification of MPAL excludes AML with myelodysplasia related changes (AML-MRC), including those with complex karyotype (CK), from a diagnosis of MPAL. Abnormal karyotype is frequent in MPAL with the reported rate of CK in MPAL ranging from 19% to 32%. Due its rarity, the clinical and genetic features of MPAL with CK remain poorly characterized. This study aims to further characterize the genetic features of MPAL with CK in comparison to cases of AML and ALL with CK. Cases of de novo MPAL, AML, and B- and T-ALL patients with CK were collected from 8 member institutions of the Bone Marrow Pathology Group. We found no significant difference in overall survival between MPAL with CK compared to AML and ALL with CK. AML with CK was more strongly associated with TP53 mutations, however the presence of TP53 mutations conferred a worse prognosis regardless of lineage. ALL with CK seems to show increased IKZF1 mutation rates which is known to confer a worse prognosis in ALL. Additionally, MPAL with CK showed similarly poor outcomes regardless of whether a lymphoid or myeloid chemotherapy regimen is chosen. Our results suggest that acute leukemias with complex karyotype show a similarly poor outcome regardless of lineage differentiation and that mutation in TP53 confers a poor prognosis in all lineages. Our results support the exclusion of immunophenotypic MPAL with CK from MPAL and appear to confirm the approach proposed in the revised 4th edition WHO to include them as AML with myelodysplasia-related changes and similar myelodysplasia-related AML categories of newer classifications.