Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-1 (SARS CoV-1) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), two illnesses caused by a coronavirus, have been shown to affect maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), a novel coronavirus, may have similar effects during the antenatal period and has been shown to affect vasculature and cause placental changes. The placenta is a vital vascular organ of pregnancy that plays a key role in both maternal and fetal health, including transport of nutrients responsible for appropriate fetal growth. Covid-19 has been shown to cause placental changes such as microcalcifications, increased fibrin, and thrombi formation. Insults during the crucial time of placental development and remodeling, namely the first and second trimester, may affect overall placental size and functional capacity.These changes have been hypothesized to contribute to intrauterine fetal growth restriction. While some initial studies have demonstrated good outcomes for mothers and neonates following infection with Covid-19 during pregnancy, more research is needed to characterize the rate of perinatal complications due to Covid-19 and whether the timing of infection has variable effects on fetal growth.
Methods: We will conduct a retrospective chart review of all women who tested positive for Covid-19 during pregnancy or at the time of delivery and their infants from March 1, 2020–March 24 2021 at a single academic institution.
Anticipated results: Given the possible effects of Covid-19 infections on the placenta and, therefore, the developing fetus, we anticipate that antenatally acquired maternal Covid-19 infections will negatively impact fetal growth. Additionally, given the crucial period for placental remodeling, we also anticipate that timing of antenatal infections will have varying effects on neonatal weight at birth.
Next steps: Data collection and statistical analysis are currently ongoing.
Emery, Tiffany J.; Kati N. Baillie; and Jessie R. Maxwell. "Neonatal Birth Characteristics Following Antenatal Maternal Covid-19 Infection." (2021). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/hsc_2021_pediatric_research/12