Document Type

Book Chapter

Publication Date



The demand to inculcate young Germans in a modern and German-nationalist spirit rather than the traditional reverence for classical antiquity emanated from no lesser person than Wilhelm II in 1890. But the previously little-examined backstage of reformed professional education and decision-making in lesser civil-service offices, private schools and impersonal art markets were real driving forces for change, including the embrace of what we call modernism.

Publication Title

Françoise Forster-Hahn (ed.), Imagining Modern German Culture, 1889-1910, Special Issue of Studies in the History of Art (Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art, 1996), 37-51.

Included in

History Commons