In the twentieth century, the nineteen Pueblos of New Mexico relied on their confederate council—the All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC)—to negotiate the demands of the American political system. By organizing around a single, historic body, the Pueblos were able to shield much of their tradition, secure a degree of political and educational autonomy, protect their water rights, and increase their economic development. The leaders of the AIPC were on the front line in negotiating with federal and state authorities, and became adept at negotiating political networks to secure Pueblo interests. Despite the historic conflicts within the Pueblos, the actions of the AIPC during the twentieth century demonstrate that the Pueblos were keen to unite around a political confederation, representing all Pueblos, when their joint interests were threatened. Further, the AIPC became the single organization Pueblo people and tribal councils relied on to protect, bolster, and even increase the sovereignty of the Pueblos, amidst a larger Native sovereignty movement in the United States.
Level of Degree
First Committee Member (Chair)
Ball, L. Durwood
Second Committee Member
Walden, Robin S.. "The Pueblo Confederation's Political Wing: The All Indian Pueblo Council, 1920—1975." (2011). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/hist_etds/79