Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

Publication Date



Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.) and subsequent reauthorizations require the United States Department of Education to distribute funding to states that ultimately goes to local school districts for the purpose of improving the academic achievement of disadvantaged students, including English Language Learners (ELLs). In New Mexico, 64% of public school students participate in Title I programs, and 16% of all New Mexico students are ELLs. However, no studies to date have explored how New Mexico public school districts are implementing Title I with respect to English Language Learners. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct document review and to survey and interview Title I Directors in New Mexico school districts to determine how Title I is implemented with respect to English Language Learners. Results indicated that ELL students participate in New Mexico Title I Programs. Results also indicated that, in addition to the academic needs of students in general, ELLs in Title I Programs in New Mexico have additional needs based on their academic English skills, and in some cases, poverty. To meet these needs, bilingual programs, including the dual language model, are common within the organizational structures. Study participants revealed that collaboration, bilingual education programs, and parent involvement play key roles in fostering the goals of Title I. Significantly, study participants did not indicate that they treat ELLs as a burden. Rather, when thinking about the ELLs in their districts, directors understand these are the students they are serving. As one director exclaimed, "That's who our kids are." These results have important implications for optimizing the education of ELL students in New Mexico, including improvements in organizational structures, improved programs for parents, and increases in professional development. Combined, the findings of this study highlight how New Mexico public school districts are implementing Title I with respect to English Language Learners.


education, English language learners, ELL, ELLs, limited English proficient, LEP, LEPs, Title I, federal programs, Native American students, Native American languages, Spanish speakers, poverty, New Mexico, public schools, teacher expectations, collaboration, equity in education, high expectations, history of education, immigrant education experience, parent involvement

Document Type




Degree Name

Educational Leadership

Level of Degree


Department Name

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy

First Committee Member (Chair)

Arlie Woodrum

Second Committee Member

Allison M. Borden

Third Committee Member

Rebecca Blum-Martínez

Fourth Committee Member

Viola E. Florez