It has long been recognized that reading problems may be of multiple causation. Some research studies have shown that certain visual perceptual abilities are related to success in early school learning and in beginning reading, but present tests commonly used do not point out strengths, weaknesses, or individual differences in visual perception among "normal children." The high percentage of children with reading disabilities, and children, boys especially, whose reading is not commensurate with their abilities warrants the need for the study presented. The purpose of the study was two-fold. Its first intention was to evaluate two visual perceptual tests, the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Bender Gestalt Test, using the Koppitz scoring system for boys, as predictors of strengths or weaknesses in visual perception and visual-motor abilities. The study's second concern was with the relationship these abilities might have to reading achievement among upper-middle-class, second-semester, first-grade boys.
1. Second-semester, first-grade boys' perceptual quotient on the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception will show a significant correlation with the reading achievement scores on the Gates-MacGinite Reading Test.
2. The Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception, perceptual quotient, will show a significant correlation with the perceptual ages of the Bender Gestalt Test, using the Koppitz scoring system.
3. The Bender Gestalt Test, using the Koppitz scoring system, will show a significant correlation with the reading achievement scores on the Gates-MacGinite Reading Test.
A level of significance of .05 was required for rejection or acceptance of the hypotheses. The Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception, perceptual quotient, correlated significantly with the Gates-MacGinite Reading Test, thus supporting hypotheses No. 1. The Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception, perceptual quotient, correlated significantly with the Bender Gestalt Perceptual age for boys (using the Koppitz scoring system), thus supporting hypothesis No. 2. There was also a significant correlation between the Bender Gestalt perceptual age for boys and the Gates-MacGinite Reading Test scores, thus supporting hypothesis No. 3. The following are the major findings of this study:
1. There is some evidence that there is a perceptual readiness necessary for beginning reading.
2. There is a range of individual variation in normal children in perceptual competence at the age level and grade studied. This may be a matter of maturation.
3. The process of perception in reading is extremely complex: perhaps if beginning learning is not achieved, the integration of this necessary beginning learning cannot take place, and more appropriate remedial or beginning training should be considered.
Level of Degree
Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy
First Committee Member (Chair)
Miles Vernon Zintz
Second Committee Member
David Wayne Darling
Third Committee Member
James Gordon Cooper
Melada, Dale L.. "An Investigation of the Relationship Between Visual Perceptual Abilities and Reading Achievement." (1969). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/educ_teelp_etds/397