Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

Publication Date

Fall 11-12-2021


The lack of academic success of the U.S. adolescents and wide achievement gap have become a persistent problem of the United States. Therefore, several educational reforms have been made to increase U.S. students’ academic performance as well as close achievement gap. However, despite the various reforms and efforts that have been enacted in educational sectors, U.S. students’ academic performance seemed not enough. Therefore, psychological factors were considered in the educational reform strategy, in which promoting growth mindset among students has become a way to accelerate students’ academic performance as well as reduce the achievement gap. Since then, numerous growth mindset interventions have been conduced throughout the world to increase students’ academic performance. However, some growth mindset interventions have been found are effective to increase students’ academic performance, while others are not. Therefore, with the inconsistent findings of intervention’s effectiveness, there is a need to have a comprehensive synthesize of all current studies on mindset interventions to find the overall effectiveness. Therefore, this study intends to examine if the growth mindset interventions are effective to increase academic performance of elementary students using systematic review analysis procedure. This study collected data from extant studies that implemented growth mindset intervention in educational settings and measured at least one academic outcome post-intervention. This study found that growth mindset interventions on average can improve academic performance of the students. This study also utilized Pearson pairwise correlations between the effect size of interventions on students’ academic performance and the variables (a) location of intervention, (b) school resource level, and (c) intervention duration. This study found a negative relationship between the variables and effect size of the growth mindset intervention. However, none of the pairwise correlations were statistically significant. Therefore, this study suggests that further study is needed to increase intervention’s effectiveness as well as to yield more insight into the factors that could influence an intervention’s efficacy.


Growth Mindset, Elementary Education, Academic Performance, Growth Mindset Intervention

Document Type




Degree Name

Elementary Education

Level of Degree


Department Name

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy

First Committee Member (Chair)

Dr. Trenia Walker

Second Committee Member

Dr. Allison Borden

Third Committee Member

Dr. Colette Taylor

Fourth Committee Member

Dr. Dominick Zurlo