The study was undertaken to determine the effect of immediate student initiated visual feedback on the perceived instructional effectiveness of secondary student teachers with reference to nine process variables. The primary purpose of the research was to measure the change of student teacher instructional effectiveness as perceived by secondary students. A second purpose of the study was to measure the effect of immediate student initiated visual feedback on nine selected process variables. The nine variables were: ( 1) Clarity of Instruction; (2) Explanation During Instruction; (3) Enthusiasm During Instruction; (4) Task Orientation; (5) Learning Opportunities Other Than Listening; (6) Multiple Levels of Discourse; (7) Use of Student Ideas; (8) Use of Noncritical Remarks; and (9) Use of Interesting Questions.
The sample population consisted of thirty-six secondary student teachers at the University of Texas at Arlington who were selected and assigned at random to the control group or the experimental group.
The student teachers in the experimental and control groups taught for two weeks. After two weeks, students in the experimental and control classes were pretested with the Teacher Behavior Survey. Following the three week treatment period, students in the experimental and control classes were posttested with the Teacher Behavior Survey.
The general null hypothesis and the nine operational hypotheses were rejected at the .05 level of significance using the statistical procedures of discriminant analysis and the analysis of covariance. The general nulI hypothesis stated that the perceived instructional effectiveness of secondary student teachers who experienced the immediate student initiated visual feedback would not differ significantly from the perceived instructional effectiveness of student teachers in the control group who did not experience the _immediate student initiated visual feedback. Significant differences at the .025 level were found between the experimental group and the control group on the nine selected variables when the posttest scores were adjusted.
Conclusions and Recommendations
The results from the research suggest an inexpensive, efficient, and effective methodology for improving the instructional effectiveness of student teachers. Immediate ·student initiated visual· feedback appeared to be a reliable methodology through which student teachers elicit student feedback during instruction. Some specific behavior changes made by student teachers to increase their instructional effectiveness included rewording questions, introducing examples, changing the speed of delivery ,and quantity of material presented, altering the volume of their voices, and varying the complexity of the questions. Immediate student initiated visual feedback during teacher training appears to be an area of research which warrants further investigation.
Level of Degree
Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy
First Committee Member (Chair)
Paul William Tweeten
Second Committee Member
William Barton Runge
Third Committee Member
Sara Dawn Smith
Fourth Committee Member
Roderic L. Wagoner
Reinhartz, Judy. "The Effect of Immediate Student Initiated Visual Feedback on the Perceived Instructional Effectiveness of Selected Secondary Student Teachers." (1977). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/educ_teelp_etds/319