Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

Publication Date

Fall 11-2-2019


With the emergence of digital technology as a primary means to communicate and learn, it is imperative that educators become proficient in utilizing 21stcentury digital tools and apps. However, research has shown that preservice teachers' levels of readiness for teaching in 1:1 classrooms are not sufficient. Preservice teachers need to increase their proficiency with technology, both hardware and software, in order to maximize student achievement and prepare their future students for a wide array of post-secondary options.

This study examined the perceptions that preservice teachers held regarding their readiness to step into 1:1 classrooms upon completion of their teacher candidacy program. The study was guided by these two questions: What professional digital competencies designed for a 1:1 classroom were being taught in the preservice teachers’ education courses? To what extent did preservice teachers feel prepared to begin their careers teaching in 1:1 classrooms?

Preservice teachers reported a wide range of responses when asked to reflect on their digital competencies and assess their levels of proficiency. When asked to assess their proficiency with hardware and educational software, the percentage of participants who agreed they were proficient ranged from 16% to 97%. However, a more complex story emerged by conducting a cross-tabulation analysis between proficiency and readiness to teach. The cross-tabulation data revealed that preservice teachers’ levels of proficiency with hardware and educational software declined when readiness to teach was also considered. The level of hardware and educational software training preservice teachers received appeared to be highly dependent on the background of the faculty teaching their courses and their field study placement. Preservice teachers were less likely to receive training on integrating software apps into their lessons during their formal coursework, but were confident they would receive additional training in their school districts.

When asked about their readiness to teach, 73% of the participants responded they were prepared to select technologies to use in their 1:1 classrooms that enhanced what they taught, how they taught, and what students learned. In contrast, when each participant’s total score was calculated for the hardware and educational software questions, the percentage of participants who agreed they were proficient ranged from a low of 36.5% for hardware to 56.4% for educational software.

This study was a single exploratory case study, which focused on the elementary and secondary students enrolled in the teacher candidacy program at one university, during the course of one semester. The sample consisted of 63 preservice teachers who responded to an electronic survey. Three preservice teachers were interviewed to elicit additional contextual data.


Apps, EdTech, Digital Divide, One-to-One Classroom

Document Type




Degree Name

Educational Leadership

Level of Degree


Department Name

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy

First Committee Member (Chair)

Allison M. Borden

Second Committee Member

Arlie Woodrum

Third Committee Member

Trenia Walker

Fourth Committee Member

Belinda Mora-Garcia