Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy ETDs

Publication Date



The origin and development of pupil transportation in the United States has been influenced by social, economic, and technological factors. In an interdependent way, these factors have directed and controlled the evolution of pupil transportation. The reason for transporting pupils to school are rooted in the elements of our rural culture and in the social, economic, and technological forces acting upon it. The American farmer, by living on the land he tilled, helped to introduce forms of rural social structure which made pupil transportation inevitable. The needs of early rural people were met by the establishment of social organizations such as churches and schools for carrying on activities beyond those of the economically self-sufficient family unit. The country neighborhood became the most influential pattern of association beyond the family.

Document Type




Degree Name

Teaching, Learning and Teacher Education

Level of Degree


Department Name

Teacher Education, Educational Leadership & Policy

First Committee Member (Chair)

Devoy Alonzo Ryan

Second Committee Member

Tom Taketo Sasaki

Third Committee Member

Robert John Doxtator