Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs


Chulho Bum

Publication Date



The purpose of this study was to investigate: (a) the effect of Korean junior golf coaches leadership styles on their athletes' sense of competitive state anxiety levels; (b) the effect of coaches' leadership styles on their athletes' performance; (c) the effect of athletes' competitive state anxiety levels on their performance; and (d) the mediating effect of athletes' competitive state anxiety levels on the relationship between coaches' leadership styles and golf performance levels. Junior golfers who were registered with the Korea Junior Golf Association (KJGA) were selected as the subject of this study. Using a convenience sampling technique, 232 questionnaires were collected from the 23rd Korean National Middle and High School Golf Championship, held in August 2012. Among them, 216 questionnaires were ultimately used for the research data in this study. The measurement instruments were the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) developed by Chelladurai and Saleh (1980), the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) introduced by Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, and Smith (1990b), and the athletes' gross scores in the preliminary championship tournament. The statistical analysis used descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis, and the three-step mediating effect analysis. First, the results indicated that higher levels of a coach's training/instruction behavior and social support behavior decreased junior golfers' cognitive anxiety levels, but autocratic behavior increased their anxiety levels. A coach's training/instruction behavior and positive feedback boosted their athletes' self-confidence levels. Second, a coach's training/instruction behavior improved their athletes' golf performance, whereas autocratic behavior deteriorated their performance levels. Third, higher levels of athletes' cognitive anxiety worsened their golf performance, and higher levels of athletes' self-confidence enhanced their performance levels. Lastly, the mediating effect analysis indicated: (a) higher levels of a coach's training/instruction behavior lowered athletes' cognitive anxiety levels, and lower levels of cognitive anxiety levels increased their golf performance levels; (b) a coach's autocratic behavior increased athletes' cognitive anxiety levels, and a higher sense of athletes' cognitive anxiety decreased their performance levels; and (c) higher levels of training/instruction behavior from a coach improved athletes' self-confidence levels, and higher levels of their self-confidence increased their golf performance levels.'


Golf coaches' leadership style, junior athletes' competitive state anxiety and performance in South Korea

Document Type




Degree Name

Physical Education, Sports and Exercise Science

Level of Degree


Department Name

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences

First Committee Member (Chair)

Seidler, Todd L.

Second Committee Member

Clement, Annie

Third Committee Member

Shin, Stephen