Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs

Publication Date



The purpose of this study was to determine which barriers physical education teachers in the Island of Puerto Rico perceive to influence their teaching of the established physical education curriculum. The instrument Perceived Barriers to Teach Survey, a modification of the Opportunities to Learn instrument (2010) from NASPE was used to collect data from a stratified sample of 600 physical education teachers from all the school levels in Puerto Rico. Five-point Likert-type scales and open- ended questions were used to measure respondents perceptions regarding barriers to teach the established curriculum. The results of the study were as follows. First, teachers working at different schools levels did not perceived barriers differently. Second, teachers with fifteen to twenty years of teaching experience did not find the physical education Marco Curricular to be a valuable tool. Third, teachers with fifteen to twenty years of teaching experience did not use the Marco Curricular to plan their daily lessons. Fourth, lack of appropriate facilities, lack of equipment and materials and principal support were identified as barriers by teachers. Fifth, significant differences were found between teachers from the school districts of Ponce and Mayaguez in terms of time to teach. Significant differences were found between teachers working at a ' Segunda Unidad' school setting and the rest of the school levels with regards to time to teach, principal support and number of students. Seventh, three main categories were formed after open — ended questions were analyzed: lack of adequate facilities, lack of equipment and materials. The findings suggest that teachers attempted to adopt and implement the Marco Curricular of the PR Department of Education, but barriers were present. School administrators and policy experts have a major responsibility to assist teachers minimizing the barriers that hinder the implementation of the established curriculum.'


barriers, physical education, Puerto Rico Department of Education, Self-reported barriers

Document Type




Degree Name

Physical Education, Sports and Exercise Science

Level of Degree


Department Name

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences

First Committee Member (Chair)

Armstrong, Jan

Second Committee Member

Hushman, Glenn

Third Committee Member

Martínez, Alfredo