Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs


Ceyda Mumcu

Publication Date



The purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument Attitude toward Women's Sports (ATWS) Scale' to measure attitude toward women's sports, and seek various validity and reliability evidences for the instrument. First, item pool of ATWS scale was reviewed by subject matter experts to collect evidence on content validity of the instrument and to refine the instrument. Second, items were tested with two pilot studies to assess effectiveness of the items within the ATWS scale by performing item analyses. Total of 49 items were deleted in two pilot studies as a result of item analyses. The remaining items were used to create the ATWS scale, and tested with women's sport fans (n = 230). Exploratory Factor Analysis was performed to examine internal structure of the ATWS scale, and eight factors accounted for 68 percent of the variance in the items. Furthermore, relationship between attitude toward women's sports and consumption intentions was investigated by a multiple linear regression analysis as evidence based on relationship to other variables. The regression analysis reported excitement, affect and drama as statistically significant predictors of consumption intentions. Finally, the scores derived from the final eight factors had adequate reliability (Excitement α = .857, Opportunity for Women α = .832, Accessibility α = .807, Aesthetic α = .858, Affect α = .736, Drama α = .831, Entertainment Value α = .739, Athlete Quality α = .863). The results of the present study provided evidence for content validity, internal structure, relationship to other variables, and reliability for the final eight subscales and their respective 34 items representing domains of attitude toward women's sports.'


Attitude, women's sports, consumption intentions, sports marketing

Document Type




Degree Name

Physical Education, Sports and Exercise Science

Level of Degree


Department Name

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences

First Committee Member (Chair)

Clement, Annie

Second Committee Member

Marley, Scott

Third Committee Member

Lough, Nancy