Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs


Minhyun Kim

Publication Date



The leadership practices exhibited by physical education teachers have been found to have a significant impact on promoting students learning. The main purpose of this study was to explore: (a) differences on middle school students' perception regarding expectancy-value and intrinsic motivation according to their grade, gender, and ethnicity, (b) the relationship between physical education teachers' transformational leadership and middle school students' expectancy-value and intrinsic motivation. To conduct this study, three questionnaires were employed: transformational teaching questionnaire (Beauchamp et al., 2010), expectancy-value questionnaire (Duncan & Tammen, 1989), and intrinsic motivation index (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995). A total of 295 middle school students participated in this study through a convenience sampling technique, and 262 questionnaires were used for the data analyses. Data collected were analyzed by descriptive, exploratory factor analysis, t-test, ANOVAs, and regression. The study results showed that generally 6th grade students perceived higher expectancy-value and intrinsic value than 8th grade students. Male students had higher expectancy-value and intrinsic value than female students. However, there was no statistically significant difference among ethnic groups. In addition, according to single regression, transformational leadership had a positive impact on students' expectancy-value and intrinsic motivation. Lastly, based on multiple regression, intellectual stimulation was a common factor that affected students' expectancy-value and intrinsic motivation positively. The results of the study support the importance of transformational leadership that affects middle school students' intrinsic motivation and expectancy-value in physical education. Thus, it is recommended that physical education teachers be able to understand and display appropriate leadership, in particular transformational leadership.'


Physical education, leadership, intrinscin motivation, expectancy-value

Document Type




Degree Name

Physical Education, Sports and Exercise Science

Level of Degree


Department Name

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences

First Committee Member (Chair)

Seidler, Todd

Second Committee Member

Perry, Christina

Third Committee Member

So, Hosung