Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences ETDs

Publication Date

Fall 11-15-2022


This study examined the effects of hot water immersion (HWI) on exercise performance and inflammatory markers after a resistance exercise-induced muscle damage protocol. Strength trained males (n = 5) and females (n = 5) completed two experimental trials separated by at least 2 weeks in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved HWI, the other temperate water immersion (TWI). For each trial, subjects performed a muscle damaging protocol followed by HWI or TWI for up to 50 minutes. The protocol consisted of 10 sets of 8 repetitions at 70% of 1-repetition maximum with 4s eccentric, 1s concentric lifting tempo, followed by 4 sets of 20 plyometric lunges. Vertical jump, isometric and isokinetic maximal voluntary contractions, and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation were measured prior to, and at 24h-, 48h-, and 72h-post exercise. No decreases in jump height, and isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were observed for HWI and TWI. For isokinetic MVC at 180°/s, HWI showed no decreases at any time point, while TWI decreased at every time point compared to baseline. HWI and TWI isokinetic MVC at 60°/s decreased at all time points. Soreness was increased at every time-point after HWI and TWI when compared to baseline. For blood markers, compared to baseline, creatine kinase (CK) increased at 24h-post-exerise, but was not different from baseline at 48h- and 72h-post exercise after HWI. In TWI, CK was increased at 24h-, and 72h-post exercise when compared to baseline. Myoglobin was only increased after HWI at 24h-post exercise. For inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein was increased at 24h-post exercise for HWI, but not TWI. Tumor necrosis factor-α was increased 48h- and 72h-post exercise when compared to baseline for HWI but was not increased at any time point for TWI. On the other hand, Interleukin-6 was increased 24h- and 48h-post exercise for TWI but was not increased at any time point for HWI. No changes in Interleukin-10 were observed. These findings indicate that HWI is marginally more effective than TWI to hasten exercise performance and reduce creatine kinase levels. Conversely, we speculate that inflammation lasted longer in the HWI.


muscle damage, hot water immersion, recovery, performance, resistance training

Document Type




Degree Name

Physical Education, Sports and Exercise Science

Level of Degree


Department Name

Health, Exercise, and Sports Sciences

First Committee Member (Chair)

Fabiano Amorim

Second Committee Member

Christine Mermier

Third Committee Member

Michael Deyhle

Fourth Committee Member

Flavio de Castro Magalhaes