In the past, analyses of tropospheric reactions of electromagnetic waves propagating in the atmosphere have been based on spherically symmetric medium. However, this applies only to ray bending in a vertical plane (elevation angles). Numerous methods have been developed to correct for elevation angle errors. In 1961, the presentation of a new method for use in a nonsymmetric atmosphere revived interest in horizontal (azimuth angle) bending. In order to use this method to test significance of azimuth angle errors, the spacial distribution of index of refraction must be known.
The primary objective of this paper is to propose a model which utilizes meteorological profiles to describe the lower troposphere. Since meteorological data are necessarily limited, plane surfaces are selected as the basic component of the model. The different combinations of planes are discussed and a model using parallel planes tilted with respect to a plane tangent to the earth becomes the fundamental part of a representation to be used with the nonsymmetric bending correction technique.
Azimuth Angle, Troposphere, Space Index Representations, Bending Correction Methods
Level of Degree
Electrical and Computer Engineering
First Committee Member (Chair)
Donald C. Cutter
Second Committee Member
Third Committee Member
Rubin D. Kelly
Cramond, Wallis R.. "An Approach to Azimuth Angle Refraction Corrections." (1962). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/ece_etds/295