The investigation of the energy loss in condensers is one which electricians and experimenters have long carried on. Their efforts have been restricted chiefly to alternating currents. Many methods have been proposed and used with varying success. The losses in condensers are due to dielectric hysteresis and leakage. That the dielectric of a condenser becomes heated when an alternating current is applied to terminals has long been known. A condenser which has been charged does not lose its entire charge when it is discharged, part of it remaining as a residual charge. Kleiner used the thermo-couple embedded in the dielectric to determine the heating effect. His observation showed considerable heating effect in ebonite, gutta-percha, glass and mica, but none in rosin and paraffin.
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Electrical and Computer Engineering
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Allen, Walter Roland. "Energy Loss in Commercial Condensers." (1910). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/ece_etds/267