From 1999 to 2014, over 165,000 persons in the United States died from an overdose related to prescription opioids (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). In response, the CDC released guidelines that propose nonpharmacologic and nonopioid pharmacologic therapy as preferred methods for chronic pain control (Dowell et al., 2016). The purpose of this project was to examine the biopsychosocial multidisciplinary treatment impact on risk of opioid medication misuse among adult chronic opioid-dependent noncancer pain clinic patients with and without a psychiatric disorder. Engel’s (1977) biopsychosocial model was used to evaluate whether multidisciplinary treatment impacted the risk of opioid misuse for noncancer chronic pain patients at San Diego Pain Institute pain management clinic. A quantitative retrospective four-group design study was completed to determine whether biopsychosocial multidisciplinary treatment impacts the risk of opioid medication misuse. A medical chart review was used to identify those patients with and without a psychiatric disorder who are participating in a biopsychosocial treatment program comprising (a) a pain management program, (b) a physical therapy program, and (c) cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and those who are not participating in a treatment program with those three services. The Pain Medication Questionnaire (PMQ) was used to compare the risk of opioid medication misuse between the four groups (Adams et al., 2004). The results showed a biopsychosocial multidisciplinary treatment approach comprising pain management, physical therapy, and CBT reduced the risk of opioid medication misuse among chronic pain patients with a psychiatric disorder and may provide patients and providers an alternative method for opioid misuse prevention.

Document Type

Scholarly Project

Degree Name

Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)


opioids, opioid misuse, biopsychosocial, chronic pain, pain management

Included in

Nursing Commons