One of the critical factors in the development of additive manufacturing in the construction industry is designing suitable materials for 3D printing applications. 3D concrete printing (3DCP) has gained significant attention due to the abundance and availability of concrete. However, concrete is a brittle material and, without proper reinforcement, cannot meet the requirements for structural purposes. Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC), known for high ductility, and strain-hardening with low fiber contents, can potentially eliminate the need for steel reinforcement in 3D printing without any need for manual placement of reinforcement. A set of systematic tests on ECC mix designs' fresh and hardened properties was conducted to achieve the desirable ECC for 3DCP applications. In the preliminary stage, the cement was replaced with various contents of fly ash, slag, and silica fume, in two replacement levels, 50%, and 75%. The compressive, flow table, and setting time tests were conducted to evaluate the v primary mix designs. In the fresh state, the flow table test was set in a constant range of 18-20 cm to ensure the flowability of mixes.
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Bakhshi, Amir. "ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OF ENGINEERED CEMENTITIOUS COMPOSITES WITH ULTRA-HIGH TENSILE DUCTILITY." (2023). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/ce_etds/293
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