Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of race/ethnicity to cognitive and language scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd edition (BSID-III) in extremely preterm toddlers (<28+0 weeks estimated gestational age). Study Design: Extremely preterm toddlers at NICHD Neonatal Research Network Centers evaluated at 18-22 months adjusted age from 3 race/ethnic groups (White, Black, and Hispanic-White) were included in this cohort study. Multivariable regression modeling was used to identify race/ethnic differences adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors. Results: Children included 369 Whites, 352 Blacks and 144 Hispanic-Whites. Cognitive scores differed between groups in unadjusted analysis (p=<0.001), but not after adjusting for medical and psychosocial factors (p=0.13). Language scores differed in adjusted and unadjusted analyses. Whites scored higher than Blacks or Hispanic-Whites, and Blacks scored higher than Hispanic- Whites. Conclusions:A combination of medical variables and primary caretaker education accounted for differences in BSID-III cognitive scores between groups. Black and Hispanic-White toddlers had lower language scores than Whites, even after adjustment. Early intervention should be targeted to these identified risk factors. Assessment of early language development among minority groups may be warranted.
"premature, BSID, development"
Level of Degree
Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program
First Committee Member (Chair)
Second Committee Member
Third Committee Member
Duncan, Andrea. "ASSOCIATION OF RACE AND ETHNICITY WITH COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE TESTING AT 18-22 MONTHS IN EXTREMELY PRETERM INFANTS." (2011). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/biom_etds/89