American Studies ETDs


Adam Bubb

Publication Date



This study examines the impacts of four tribes, the Forest County Potawatomi, Sault Ste Marie Chippewa, Mashantucket Pequot, and Florida Seminole, and their alternative methods to acquire and participate in off-reservation gaming. The case studies provide geographical and situational examples on how the changing tribal gaming market is reshaping and redefining the boundaries of sovereignty on and off of tribal lands and non-tribal lands. Each case study provides a detailed history of the tribe and their gaming experiences. Through the use of a cultural site analysis, each tribe's on and off-reservation gaming facilities were examined to measure the economic and cultural impacts that they have on their surrounding communities. By measuring the economic impact that the tribes have on states, surrounding communities, their reservations, and individual tribal members, each case study provides a unique look at the tribal gaming market. The case studies also provide insight into how tribes are using gaming revenue for tribal services and individual benefits, how this revenue helps to create public perceptions about tribal and Indian identities, and how this revenue influences tribal policies. Each case study shows that tribes face a number of new economic, political, and social problems when they venture off of tribal land for gaming purposes. The results shows that off-reservation forms of gaming are creating numerous economic opportunities for tribes, surrounding communities, and state through the creation of new jobs, taxes generated, and increases in tourism. The results also show an increase for tribes to provide social services and other benefits to tribal members. The results show that with every gaming situation, new and unforeseeable economic and cultural problems develop as the result of tribal gaming. Tribal gaming can be an effective way for tribes to generate revenue and create a self-sustainable economic industry both on and off-reservation lands if tribe prepare themselves for the rigors and unforeseeable problems associated with the industry. Tribal gaming will continue to adapt to meet the needs of a changing industry and the more tribes prepare, the more they can venture into new territories.




off-reservation gaming

Document Type


Degree Name

American Studies

Level of Degree


Department Name

American Studies

First Committee Member (Chair)

A. Gabriel Meléndez

Second Committee Member

Gerald Vizenor

Third Committee Member

Michael L. Trujillo

Fourth Committee Member

Vincent Lyon-Callo