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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a modified Partner Violence Screen (PVS) for measuring severe lifetime and past-year intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among female trauma patients. Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major medical and public heath problem that affects as many as 5.3 million U.S. women annually. However, recent studies report that as few as 7% of women have ever been asked about IPV by a health care provider. Brief screening tools have been developed to increase screening by health care providers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of New Mexico Hospital Trauma Center. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 197 women who were admitted to the level 1 regional trauma service from April 2003 through June 2005. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the PVS for measuring severe lifetime and past-year IPV, using the severe items of the revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) as the gold standard. Validity of the PVS for measuring severe lifetime IPV was also assessed separately for Hispanics, Native Americans, and White non-Hispanics. Results: In the entire study sample, the PVS had a sensitivity of 80.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.9-87.8%) and a specificity of 95.1% (95% CI: 88.5-98.2%) for detecting any lifetime severe IPV, and a sensitivity of 70.3% (95% CI: 52.8-83.6%) and a specificity of 97.4% (95% CI: 92.1-99.3%) for detecting any past-year severe IPV. The PVS had sensitivity of 77.8-85.7% and a specificity of 93.5-96% when examining Hispanic, Native American, and White non-Hispanic women individually. Conclusion: The PVS is a valid screening tool for measuring severe lifetime IPV in Hispanic, Native American, and White, non-Hispanic female trauma patients. The PVS had lower sensitivity for measuring severe IPV in the past year and thus may not be as valid for measuring recently experienced IPV. More research needs to be conducted with larger samples to determine appropriate screening tools to further prevent and help victims of IPV.