There has long been an interest among psychologists regarding the inner processes of the personality, but it has been only In recent years that an effort has been made to define and delineate these processes experimentally. Early writers in the field have often spoken of these less easily observed aspects such as insight, self-perception, perception of others, projection, the self concept, empathy, realism, etc., but only In recent years have investigators attempted scientifically and experimentally to define these and to show the relationships among such intrinsic processes. The need is great to show these relationships and to delineate clearly these inner traits of the personality because in the clinic these are important traits which need to be understood in work with patients. Also, this area of personality is more difficult to work with than the more extrinsic areas of personality. For this reason, the present study is aimed at a clearer understanding, by means of simple operational definitions, of three such factors—-projection, reality, and empathy--since this study is an attempt to show the relationships among these three traits.
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Ainsworth, Patricia. "An Operational Investigation Into the Relationships Among Projection, Empathy, and Reality." (1952). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/psy_etds/152