CONSIDER New Mexico: Effects of naloxone training among pharmacists and pharmacy technicians
Background: Pharmacists serve a critical role in providing health care, especially in medically underserved areas. Despite the opioid crisis and legislation in most states allowing pharmacists to dispense naloxone without a prescription from another provider, pharmacists face multiple barriers to dispensing naloxone. Objective: This study tested the effectiveness of CONSIDER New Mexico, an innovative educational initiative designed to increase naloxone dispensing by pharmacies. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted in New Mexico in 2019-2020. Community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from a purposive sample of pharmacies. Data were collected through pre-and postintervention surveys with 65 pharmacists and 44 technicians from 49 pharmacies. Data analysis included hybrid fixed-effects regression models of variables associated with pre-post intervention change in intent to dispense naloxone and generalized least squares with maximum likelihood estimation for pre-post intervention change in naloxone dispensing. Results: Positive intervention effects were observed for measures of normative beliefs, self-efficacy, and intent to dispense naloxone (P < 0.05). Changes in normative beliefs and self-efficacy were associated with greater intent to offer naloxone to patients (P < 0.05). In addition,themediannumberofnaloxoneprescriptionsdispensedpermonthincreased3.5times after intervention. A statistically significant positive association was observed between the intervention and naloxone dispensing after adjusting for other factors (P < 0.001). Pharmacies providing more than 4 additional health services were more likely to increase naloxone dispensing postintervention than pharmacies offering not more than 2 services (P < 0.01). This difference averaged 19 naloxone prescriptions per month. Estimated change in dispensing postintervention was statistically significantly lower at independent, clinic-based, and other pharmacies where an average of 36 fewer naloxone prescriptions were dispensed per month compared with chain drug stores (P ¼ 0.03). Conclusion: The CONSIDER New Mexico intervention effectively increased self-efficacy, intent to dispense, and naloxone dispensing. Findings will inform future research examining widespread dissemination and implementation of the intervention and the sustainability of intervention effects.
Cruz TH, Bachyrycz A, Rodriguez D, Ma X, Roberts M, Chambers S, Rafi, Sanchez A, Bakhireva LN. CONSIDER New Mexico: Effects of naloxone training among pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. JAPhA. 2022; online first. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2021.12.012