The comparison of cross-section predictions with data on single-inclusive hadron production in hadronic collisions, p+p → h + X, is important for understanding perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD). For hadrons produced with transverse momenta pT \u226b _QCD, the cross section factorizes into a convolution involving long-distance and short-distance components [1, 2]. Long-distance components include universal partondistribution functions (PDFs) describing the partonic structure of the initial hadrons and fragmentation functions (FFs) for the final-state hadron. The short-distance part describes the hard scattering of partons. The long distance components, PDFs and FFs, can be extracted from other processes, such as deep-inelastic scattering and hadron production in e+e− colliders. This allows for a test of the short-distance part of the convolution, which can be estimated using pQCD. In particular, differences between data and predictions can indicate the importance of neglected higher-order terms in the expansion or power-suppressed contributions .
Fields, Douglas E.. "Cross sections and double-helicity asymmetries of midrapidity inclusive charged hadrons in p+ p collisions at sqrt (s)= 62.4 GeV." (2012). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/phyc_fsp/4