Organization, Information and Learning Sciences ETDs

Publication Date



This mixed-methods study evaluated the use of a mobile learning game as a pedagogical tool aimed at developing the listening comprehension strategies of college-level Spanish students. Eighty-three students of Spanish 202 (Intermediate Spanish II) played six levels of a mobile learning game designed to guide learners through the listening comprehension process while providing a low-risk practice space for second and foreign language (L2) listening. In order to evaluate change in listening comprehension awareness and perceived use of listening comprehension strategies, an analysis of pretest and posttest survey data was conducted. Additionally, analysis of exit questionnaires, participant interviews, and gameplay data were used to identify which specific aspects of the mobile learning game influenced the development of listening comprehension awareness and strategy use. Quantitative data, in the form of survey and questionnaire results, suggest that playing the game influenced development in perceived listening comprehension strategies use. The change in survey scores from the pretest to posttest was found to show statistical significance on both the overall score for strategy use as well as for three of four sub-sections of the survey that were coded to match instructional content from levels one, two, three, and four of the game. Qualitative data from individual interviews support this finding as well. Both the quantitative and qualitative data indicate that whiteboard animations, auditory vocabulary quizzing, and pair interaction with multiple exposure to the listening text were the game components that most influenced listening comprehension development. In terms of listening strategy awareness, the survey results showed little change from pretest to posttest. Similarly, interview data revealed little evidence of any increase in awareness after playing the game. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the use of mobile learning games can have a positive impact on listening comprehension in terms of listening comprehension strategy use. These results have implications for foreign language pedagogy as well as future research in this area.

Degree Name

Organizational Learning and Instructional Technology

Level of Degree


Department Name

Organization, Information & Learning Sciences

First Committee Member (Chair)

Law, Victor

Second Committee Member

Holden, Chris

Third Committee Member

Sykes, Julie




listening comprehension, strategy instruction, mobile assisted language learning, mobile learning game, game-based learning, foreign language, second language

Document Type