Neutrosophic theory has representatives on all continents and, therefore, it can be said to be a universal theory. On the other hand, according to the three volumes of “The Encyclopedia of Neutrosophic Researchers” (2016, 2018, 2019), plus numerous others not yet included in Encyclopedia book series, about 1200 researchers from 73 countries have applied both the neutrosophic theory and method. Neutrosophic theory was founded by Professor Florentin Smarandache in 1998; it constitutes further generalization of fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy theories. The key distinction between the neutrosophic set/logic and other types of sets/logics lies in the introduction of the degree of indeterminacy/neutrality (I) as an independent component in the neutrosophic set. Thus, neutrosophic theory involves the degree of membership-truth (T), the degree of indeterminacy (I), and the degree of non-membership-falsehood (F). In recent years, the field of neutrosophic set, logic, measure, probability and statistics, precalculus and calculus, etc., and their applications in multiple fields have been extended and applied in various fields, such as communication, management, and information technology. We believe that this book serves as useful guidance for learning about the current progress in neutrosophic theories. In total, 22 studies have been presented and reflect the call of the thematic vision. The contents of each study included in the volume are briefly described as follows. The first contribution, authored by Wadei Al-Omeri and Saeid Jafari, addresses the concept of generalized neutrosophic pre-closed sets and generalized neutrosophic pre-open sets in neutrosophic topological spaces. In the article “Design of Fuzzy Sampling Plan Using the Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution”, the authors Muhammad Zahir Khan, Muhammad Farid Khan, Muhammad Aslam, and Abdur Razzaque Mughal discuss the use of probability distribution function of Birnbaum–Saunders distribution as a proportion of defective items and the acceptance probability in a fuzzy environment. Further, the authors Derya Bakbak, Vakkas Uluc¸ay, and Memet S¸ahin present the “Neutrosophic Soft Expert Multiset and Their Application to Multiple Criteria Decision Making” together with several operations defined for them and their important algebraic properties. In “Neutrosophic Multigroups and Applications”, Vakkas Uluc¸ay and Memet S¸ahin propose an algebraic structure on neutrosophic multisets called neutrosophic multigroups, deriving their basic properties and giving some applications to group theory. Changxing Fan, Jun Ye, Sheng Feng, En Fan, and Keli Hu introduce the “Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Method Using Heronian Mean Operators under a Bipolar Neutrosophic Environment” and test the effectiveness of their new methods. Another decision-making study upon an everyday life issue which empowered us to organize the key objective of the industry developing is given in “Neutrosophic Cubic Einstein Hybrid Geometric Aggregation Operators with Application in Prioritization Using Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method” written by Khaleed Alhazaymeh, Muhammad Gulistan, Majid Khan, and Seifedine Kadry.
set theory, neutrosophic theory, neutrosophic logic, mathematics
Smarandache, Florentin; Stefan Vladutescu; Miihaela Colhon; Wadei Al-Omeri; Saeid Jafari; Muhammad Zahir Khan; Muhammad Farid Khan; Muhammad Aslam; and Abdur Razzaque Mughal. "New Challenges in Neutrosophic Theory and Applications." Mathematics (2020): 1-350. https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/math_fsp/453
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