## Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications

#### Document Type

Article

#### Publication Date

2013

#### Abstract

In this paper we present a short history of logics: from particular cases of 2-symbol or numerical valued logic to the general case of n-symbol or numerical valued logic. We show generalizations of 2-valued Boolean logic to fuzzy logic, also from the Kleene’s and Lukasiewicz’ 3-symbol valued logics or Belnap’s 4-symbol valued logic to the most general n-symbol or numerical valued refined neutrosophic logic. Two classes of neutrosophic norm (n-norm) and neutrosophic conorm (n-conorm) are defined. Examples of applications of neutrosophic logic to physics are listed in the last section. Similar generalizations can be done for n-Valued Refined Neutrosophic Set, and respectively n-Valued Refined Neutrosopjhic Probability

#### Publication Title

Progress in Physics

#### Volume

4

#### First Page

143

#### Last Page

146

#### Language (ISO)

English

#### Keywords

2-valued Boolean logic, Kleene’s and Lukasiewicz’ 3-symbol valued logics, Belnap’s 4-symbol valued logic, Refined Neutrosophic Set, Refined Neutrosophic Logic, Refined Neutrosophic Probability, n-valued neutrosophic set, n-valued neutrosophic logic, n-valued neutrosophic probability

#### Recommended Citation

Smarandache, Florentin.
"n-Valued Refined Neutrosophic Logic and Its Applications to Physics."
*Progress in Physics*