Document Type


Publication Date



Purpose: COVID-19 has increased risk of mental health disorders and substance use in vulnerable populations. The purpose of this study is to characterize effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychosomatic outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women with intersecting vulnerabilities. Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) are a novel data collection method using a mobile phone. We hypothesized that phone type and exposure group may affect the EMA data quality.

Methods: A subset of pregnant and postpartum women were identified from the ENRICH-2 prospective cohort study. Women were recruited and classified into alcohol-using and control groups. A phone app was used to collect emotional regulation data by repeat EMA ‘instance’ surveys for two weeks. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) data was also collected pre, during, and post surveys while background syncing through a Garmin smartwatch paired with phone app. Mid-study analysis was performed to compare the EMA surveys completed and HRV measures collected with Android and Apple phones among alcohol-using and control groups.

Data/Results: To date, data were obtained from 57 participants (43 controls; 14 alcohol-using). Android phones were used by 47% of participants (64% among alcohol-using and 42% among controls). There was a significant difference for number of EMA surveys completed between Android and Apple users (34.7 vs 37.8; p=0.028); however, while completion was lower for Android users in both control and alcohol-using groups, within group differences were not significant.

For within group HRV instance data measures, there were significant mean measure differences between the control Android users (N=1154) and Apple users (N=2240) (p

Conclusion: Emerging results demonstrate that participant’s phone type is potentially an important methodological aspect of studies with EMA component and may need to be factored into the study design.


NIAAA funding: 3 R01 AA021771-08S1

BBHI Research Day poster award winner.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.