Northeastern New Mexico is one of the most diverse natural landscapes in the state. Large volcanic vents dot the basalt flows that cap the piedmont surface, providing a very rugged horizon rather than the flat monotonous topography usually associated with the Great Plains of the United States. The dissected and rolling plains are broken by severely eroded canyons that have cut through the sandstone layers topped with caliche. In some areas where the major drainages confluence (such as the intersection of the Ute and Canadian or the Conchas and the Canadian) the narrow canyons broaden into extensive valleys characterized by isolated piedmont remnants. The entire area drains to the east and onto the flatter plains of West Texas. The western edge of the northeast is well defined by the dramatic snow-capped and rugged front range of the Rocky Mountains...an edge that is visible from most high points throughout the area surveyed for this report.
Williams, Jerry L.. "Natural Elements of Northeastern New Mexico." (2020). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/homestead_pubs/6