The study examined whether [or not] Special Education teachers were familiar with or utilized the Circle of Courage values (mastery, independence, generosity, and belonging) of Native American children with disabilities including intellectual disability in daily classroom interaction at three levels (elementary, middle, and high school). This study sought to examine the methods and strategies utilized by the teachers based on three research questions: (1) Are urban special education teachers familiar with the Circle of Courage values of belonging, mastery, generosity, and independence? (2) How do urban special education teachers support and encourage [or not] the expression of the Circle of Courage values of belonging, mastery, generosity, and independence of urban school aged Native American students in school? (3) How do special education teachers operationalize the values of belonging, mastery, generosity, and independence? The study was a qualitative study utilizing naturalistic inquiry. Data were collected through multiple methods that included observations, semi structured interviews, and artifacts that included lesson plans and photos of bulletins board displays. The results showed varying levels of support of the Circle of Courage values by the special education teachers. The high school teacher addressed the four values with his students from the classroom, school, and into the community. The elementary teacher focused primarily on the values of mastery and generosity with limited to no evidence of the values of independence and belonging supported beyond the classroom. The middle school teacher focused on mastery, independence, and generosity with limited to no evidence of the value of belonging utilized by the students beyond the classroom.
American Indian, Alaska Native, Circle of Courage values, Encourage, Belonging, Mastery, Generosity, Belonging
Level of Degree
First Committee Member (Chair)
Second Committee Member
Third Committee Member
Thompson, Daisy. "The Support and Encouragement for Expression of the Circle of Courage Values by Special Education Teachers." (2015). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/educ_spcd_etds/18