Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

Publication Date

Winter 12-14-2018


Purpose/Objectives: The study assesses whether or not feedback type and feedback delivery method play a significant role in students’ learning and clinical performance. The study explores Ego Stroking Sandwich feedback and Non-Sandwich feedback as the feedback types and Instructors feedback vs. Scoring guide feedback as the feedback delivery method. Students’ perceptions and clinical applications were considered as part of the study.

Methods: Eleven participants were included in the study. One group was the Ego Stroking Sandwich type feedback (n=5) and the other was the Non-Sandwich Type feedback (n=6). Each group performed two dental impressions (a maxillary and a mandibular) while receiving feedback type according to group assignment. A post impression questionnaire was administered to gather participants’ perceptions on feedback type delivery based on the feedback they had just received.

Results: Ego Stroking Sandwich and Motivation (M=3.511, SD=.488) was slightly less effective compared to Non-Sandwich and Encouragement (M=3.597, SD=.336). The instructor Feedback subscale (M =3.28 , SD =.443) had a statistically significant higher mean for students in the Ego Stroking Sandwich condition than the Scoring Guide subscale did (M= 2.67 , SD = .242 ). Similarly the instructor feedback subscale also had a statistically significant higher mean (M= 3.70 , SD = .253) for students in the Non-Sandwich condition than the Scoring Guide subscale did (M= 2.71, SD = .149). An ANCOVA was conducted to assess the effects of Non-Sandwich versus Ego Stroking Sandwich feedback on student clinical performance using No Feedback as a covariate. No statistically significant differences noted between Non-Sandwich and Ego Stroking Sandwich feedback between groups, (F(1, 8) = 2.852, MSe = 13.239, p = .130).

Conclusion(s): A very important piece of clinical dental hygiene education is the use and delivery of feedback to students. Feedback in clinical education is essential for learning. In allied dental education, feedback is the basis for clinical teaching and student skill development. In order to effectively deliver feedback, teachers must understand the different types of feedback available and the different ways of delivering feedback. Instructors must possess skills and proper feedback knowledge in order to deliver adequate and formative feedback to students.


Feedback, Educational Psychology, Dental Hygiene, Perceptions of Feedback, Applications of Feedback, Clinical Applications of Feedback, Feedback Type, Ego Stroking Feedback, Non-Sandwich Feedback

Document Type




Degree Name

Educational Psychology

Level of Degree


Department Name

Individual, Family, and Community Education

First Committee Member (Chair)

Jay Parkes

Second Committee Member

Terri Flowerday

Third Committee Member

Jan Armstrong

Fourth Committee Member

Susan Wood

ETD Form .pdf (95 kB)