Individual, Family, and Community Education ETDs

Publication Date



This study investigated two types of modular worked examples; process-oriented (PSWE) and product-oriented (PDWE), for performance, cognitive load, and efficiency for nutrition diagnosis. One hundred and four students (104) from a 200-level course in human nutrition participated in the main study. Participants studied the worked examples and completed the practice phase during one regularly scheduled class period. Two weeks later the participants completed the maintenance phase during half a regularly scheduled class period. Both the practice and maintenance phases involved making nutrition diagnoses, using the correct International Dietetics and Nutrition Terminology (IDNT) and writing a diagnostic statement for two cases. Participants in both conditions were able to make nutrition diagnoses after studying the two worked examples in the learning phase for an average of 22 minutes. More than forty percent of participants in the practice and maintenance phases who attempted to make a diagnosis scored greater than or equal to 67.5% correct on the diagnostic tasks with the mean higher at 87.5% correct. There were no statistically significant differences in time on task or scores on the diagnostic tasks between worked example conditions. Statistically significant differences in the subscales of perceived cognitive load were observed by worked example type in the learning phase. There is a statistically significant difference in calculated efficiency scores for the maintenance phase cases. The PDWE condition was more efficient F(1,4)=8.7, p=.042, \u03c92=.344, indicating that worked example condition accounts for 34.4% of the variance in calculated efficiency for the maintenance phase, an advantage for PDWE. Results suggest an application of worked examples for training nutrition professionals.


worked examples nutrition diagnostic terminology

Document Type




Degree Name

Educational Psychology

Level of Degree


Department Name

Individual, Family, and Community Education

First Advisor

Parkes, Jay

First Committee Member (Chair)

Cohen, Deborah

Second Committee Member

Flowerday, Terri

Third Committee Member

Selig, James

Included in

Education Commons