Side channels are channels of implicit information flow that can be used to find out information that is not allowed to flow through explicit channels. This thesis focuses on network side channels, where information flow occurs in the TCP/IP network stack implementations of operating systems. I will describe three new types of idle scans: a SYN backlog idle scan, a RST rate-limit idle scan, and a hybrid idle scan. Idle scans are special types of side channels that are designed to help someone performing a network measurement (typically an attacker or a researcher) to infer something about the network that they are not otherwise able to see from their vantage point. The thesis that this dissertation tests is this: because modern network stacks have shared resources, there is a wealth of information that can be inferred off-path by both attackers and Internet measurement researchers. With respect to attackers, no matter how carefully the security model is designed, the non-interference property is unlikely to hold, i.e., an attacker can easily find side channels of information flow to learn about the network from the perspective of the system remotely. One suggestion is that trust relationships for using resources be made explicit all the way down to IP layer with the goal of dividing resources and removing sharendess to prevent advanced network reconnaissance. With respect to Internet measurement researchers, in this dissertation I show that the information flow is rich enough to test connectivity between two arbitrary hosts on the Internet and even infer in which direction any blocking is occurring. To explore this thesis, I present three research efforts: --- First, I modeled a typical TCP/IP network stack. The building process for this modeling effort led to the discovery of two new idles scans: a SYN backlog idle scan and a RST rate-limited idle scan. The SYN backlog scan is particularly interesting because it does not require whoever is performing the measurements (i.e., the attacker or researcher) to send any packets to the victim (or target) at all. --- Second, I developed a hybrid idle scan that combines elements of the SYN backlog idle scan with Antirez's original IPID-based idle scan. This scan enables researchers to test whether two arbitrary machines in the world are able to communicate via TCP/IP, and, if not, in which direction the communication is being prevented. To test the efficacy of the hybrid idle scan, I tested three different kinds of servers (Tor bridges, Tor directory servers, and normal web servers) both inside and outside China. The results were congruent with published understandings of global Internet censorship, demonstrating that the hybrid idle scan is effective. --- Third, I applied the hybrid idle scan to the difficult problem of characterizing inconsistencies in the Great Firewall of China (GFW), which is the largest firewall in the world. This effort resolved many open questions about the GFW. The result of my dissertation work is an effective method for measuring Internet censorship around the world, without requiring any kind of distributed measurement platform or access to any of the machines that connectivity is tested to or from.
Internet Measurment, Side Channels, Idle Scan, Censorship
Level of Degree
Department of Computer Science
First Committee Member (Chair)
Second Committee Member
Third Committee Member
Ensafi, Roya. "Advanced Network Inference Techniques Based on Network Protocol Stack Information Leaks." (2014). https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/cs_etds/47