Summary Information
Small Mammal Exclosure Study (SMES) Rabbit Feces Data from Chihuahuan Desert Grassland and Shrubland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico (1995-2005)
Creator:
Individual: David Lightfoot
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: Sevilleta LTER, 167 Castetter Hall, University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Locality: NM
Postal Code: 87131
Phone: US
Email: dlightfo@unm.edu
Metadata Provider:
Individual: Information Manager Sevilleta LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: 1 University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Postal Code: 87131
Phone: US
Phone: (505) 277-2109
Phone: (505) 277.5355
Email: data-use@sevilleta.unm.edu
Publication Date: 2016-03-08
Language: English
Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the activities of small mammals regulate plant community structure, plant species diversity, and spatial vegetation patterns in Chihuahuan Desert shrublands and grasslands. What role if any do indigenous small mammal consumers have in maintaining desertified landscapes in the Chihuahuan Desert? Additionally, how do the effects of small mammals interact with changing climate to affect vegetation patterns over time? This is data for numbers rabbit fecal pellets counted on each of the Small Mammal Exclosure Study (SMES) plots. Rabbit fecal pellets were counted from each of the 36 one-meter2 quadrats twice each year when vegetation was measured.
Keywords:
Keyword: disturbance
Keyword Thesaurus: Core Areas
Keywords:
Keyword: community patterns
Keyword: deserts
Keyword: grasslands
Keyword: small mammals
Keyword: rabbits
Keyword Thesaurus: LTER Controlled Vocabulary
Additional Information:
Additional Information on the personnel associated with the Data Collection / Data Processing Sevilleta Field Crew Employee History Megan McClung, April 2013-present, Stephanie Baker, October 2010-Present, John Mulhouse, August 2009-Present, Amaris Swann, August 25, 2008-January 2013, Maya Kapoor, August 9, 2003-January 21, 2005 and April 2010-March 2011, Terri Koontz, February 2000-August 2003 and August 2006-August 2010, Yang Xia, January 31, 2005-April 2009, Karen Wetherill, February 7, 2000-August 2009, Michell Thomey, September 3, 2005-August 2008, Jay McLeod, January 2006-August 2006, Charity Hall, January 31, 2005-January 3, 2006, Tessa Edelen, August 15, 2004-August 15, 2005, Seth Munson, September 9, 2002-June 2004, Caleb Hickman, September 9, 2002-November 15, 2004, Heather Simpson, August 2000-August 2002, Chris Roberts, September 2001-August 2002, Mike Friggens, 1999-September 2001, Shana Penington, February 2000-August 2000.
Intellectual Rights:
Data Policies
This dataset is released to the public and may be freely downloaded. Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement of the Sevilleta LTER. A copy of any publications using these data must be supplied to the Sevilleta LTER Information Manager.
Distribution:
Online:
URL: http://sevdeims-d.lternet.edu/data/sev-91
Coverage:
Geographic Goverage:
Geographic Description: Five Points Black Grama is on the transition between Chihuahuan Desert Scrub and Desert Grassland habitat. The site is subject to intensive research activity, including assessments of net primary productivity, phenology, and pollinator diversity, amongst other projects.  It is the site of the unburned black grama (GU) component of the Burn NPP study. On August 4, 2009, a lightning-initiated fire began on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge. By August 5, 2009, the fire had reached the Five Points Black Grama site.  Portions of this site were burned, but not the entirety.  See individual projects for further information on the effects of the burn.  
Bounding Coordinates:
West Bounding Coordinates: -106.736
East Bounding Coordinates: -106.736
North Bounding Coordinates: 34.3331
South Bounding Coordinates: 34.3331
Bounding Altitude:
Altitude Minimum: 1615
Altitude Maximum: 1615
Altitude Units: meter
Geographic Goverage:
Geographic Description: The Rio Salado is an ephemeral tributary of the Rio Grande on the west side of the Sevilleta NWR, flowing west by northwest to east by southeast. Rio Salado Grassland & Rio Salado Larrea are two study sites established in 1989. These sites were established as counterparts to sites at Five Points. Between 1989 and 1998, vegetation, litter decomposition, and ground dwelling arthropod and rodent populations were studied at both sites. Core studies at these sites were largely terminated in 1998, although rodent populations are still monitored at the Rio Salado Larrea site because the Small Mammal Exclosure Study's Larrea plots are co-located there. Rio Salado Grassland is the location Met Station 44.The Rio Salado study sites are accessed by taking the San Acacia exit, going west and then taking the frontage road back north to the Sevilleta NWR gate.  After entering the refuge turn left after 0.2 mi and take this road 1.4 mi to a "T" in the road at the power lines.  An earthen berm stops road travel here and the met station is located about 300 m west on the blocked road. 
Bounding Coordinates:
West Bounding Coordinates: -106.927
East Bounding Coordinates: -106.927
North Bounding Coordinates: 34.296
South Bounding Coordinates: 34.296
Bounding Altitude:
Altitude Minimum: 1503
Altitude Maximum: 1503
Altitude Units: meter
Temporal Coverage:
Date Range:
Begin Date:
Calendar Date: 1995-05-02
End Date:
Calendar Date: 2005-10-19
Purpose:
The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not the activities of small mammals regulate plant community structure, plant species diversity, and spatial vegetation patterns in Chihuahuan Desert shrublands and grasslands. What role if any do indigenous small mammal consumers have in maintaining desertified landscapes in the Chihuahuan Desert? Additionally, how do the effects of small mammals interact with changing climate to affect vegetation patterns over time? This study will provide long-term experimental tests of the roles of consumers on ecosystem pattern and process across a latitudinal climate gradient. The following questions or hypotheses will be addressed. 1) Do small mammals influence patterns of plant species composition and diversity, vegetation structure, and spatial patterns of vegetation canopy cover and biomass in Chihuahuan Desert shrublands and grasslands? Are small mammals keystone species that determine plant species composition and physiognomy of Chihuahuan Desert communities? Do small mammals have a significant role in maintaining the existence of shrub islands and spatial heterogeneity of creosotebush shrub communities?   2) Do small mammals affect the taxonomic composition and spatial pattern of vegetation similarly or differently in grassland communities as compared to shrub communities? How do patterns compare between grassland and shrubland sites, and how do these relatively small scale patterns relate to overall landscape vegetation patterns? 3) Do small mammals interact with short-term (annual) and  long-term (decades) climate change to affect temporal changes in vegetation spatial patterns and species composition? 4) Do small mammals interact with other herbivore and granivore consumers enough to affect the species composition and abundance’s of other consumers such as ants and grasshoppers?
Maintenance Information:
Description:
07/07/03  - Checked data for missing data points, doubles, and errors. Missing data points were recorded using periods (.), duplicates of data points were removed, and errors were corrected.  If a data point contained a measurement of zero and a measurement with a count, the zero observation was removed. - Removed Species, Comments, and Per fields.  Tape field was changed to ID# and observations made in the Per field were moved to the new ID# field.  No observations were made in the tape field.  EC field was added and NA was recorded in this field for this year.  Date MM/DD/YY field was changed to just DATE.  Other changes in the fields include PLT to PLOT, BLK to BLOCK, and CNT to COUNT.  - Missing all Plots for Block 1 at the Grassland site for the spring except BLOCK 1 PLOT 1 TRT L.  Other Plots that are missing are Site G Block 2 Plot 3 Treatment C, Site G Block 3 Plot 3 Treatment R, and Site G Block 4 Plot 2 Treatment C. These plots are from the spring field season.  All plots are present for the fall, but with several data points missing. -Missing plots are Site G Block 1 Plot 2 Treatment R and Site G Block 2 Plot 1 Treatment L.  These plots are from the fall field season.  All plots are present for spring field season.  - Any empty cells were filled in with either a period for missing data or an NA for not applicable. - Quads 32-36 were originally classified as Trt C in the fall at the Creosote site for Blk 3 Plt 2.  Changed the Trt to Trt R. - Quads 10-16 were originally classified as TRT C in the fall at the Grass Site for BLOCK 4 PLOT 1.  Changed the TRT to TRT R. - For the fall field season at the Grass Site, BLOCK 2 PLOT 4 TRT R QUAD 7 was classified as Creosote, changed to Grass Site.  - Quads 21-24 were originally classified as Trt C in the spring at the Grass site for Blk 4 Plt 3.  Changed the Trt to Trt L. - Quads 10-17 were originally classified as TRT C in the spring at the Creosote Site for BLOCK 2 PLOT 2, changed the TRT to TRT L. - Spring Field Season Changes For BLOCK 1 PLOT 2 TRT R and BLOCK 2 PLOT 1 TRT L all quads classified as Creosote Site, changed to Grass Site. For quads 1-18 at the Creosote Site for BLOCK 2 PLOT 1 TRT C, originally classified as PLOT 4, changed to PLOT 1. For Creosote Site BLOCK 4 PLOT 2 TRT C: Quads 1-4, 28-35 originally PLOT 1 changed to PLOT 2 Quads 5-19 originally PLOT 3 changed to PLOT 2 - Fall Field Season Changes For quads 1-18 at the Creosote Site for BLOCK 1 PLOT 4 TRT R, originally classified as PLOT 3, changed to PLOT 4. - Spring Field Season Changes For Grass Site BLOCK 1 PLOT 4 TRT C Quads 1-30, originally classified as BLOCK 2, changed to BLOCK 1. For Grass Site BLOCK 3 PLOT 4 TRT C Quads 20-36, originally classified as BLOCK 4 PLOT 3, changed to BLOCK 3 PLOT 4.   - Fall Field Season Changes For Creosote Site BLOCK 2 PLOT 2 TRT L, date changed from 10/09/00 to 11/09/00 for quads 26-36. For Grass Site BLOCK 1 PLOT 4 TRT C, date changed from 10/06/00 to 11/06/00 for quads 23-29.      - Any empty cells were filled in with either a period for missing data or an NA for not applicable.  - Terri Koontz 07/14/03  - Modified metadata to correct format. - Terri Koontz 07/21/03  - Spring Field Season Changes For Grass Site BLOCK 2 PLOT 1 TRT L, there were two observations for some quads that had different dates (05/02/95, 05/03/95, and 05/04/95).  All data points with either 05/02/95 or 05/03/95 were changed to BLOCK 1 PLOT 1 TRT L.  This was done because one other plot for BLOCK 2 had some quads with this same date.  Also, it seemed logical that BLOCK 1 would have been measured first. - Terri Koontz 07/29/03  – For fall at the Grass Site BLOCK 1 PLOT 4 TRT C QUADS 10-18 had double observations.  For one set of observations, the BLOCK was changed to BLOCK 3.  This was determined by looking at another year for vegetation data to see which set had similar values and species composition for BLOCK 3.  - Terri Koontz 07/30/03  - Quads 11-14 were originally classified as TRT C in the spring at the Creosote Site for BLOCK 3 PLOT 4, changed TRT to TRT L. - Terri Koontz 07/22/03  - Checked data for missing data points, doubles, and errors. Missing data points were recorded using periods (.), duplicates of data points were removed, and errors were corrected.  If a data point contained a measurement of zero and a measurement with a count, the zero observation was removed. - Date MM/DD/YY field was changed to just DATE. - Fall Field Season Changes Changed dates to reflect that data was measured in 2001 and not in the 1970s. Changed in the ID# field ‘1’ to SMESVQF01CR1, ‘2’ to SMESVQF01CR2, and ‘3’ to SMESVQF01CR3. For Creosote BLOCK 2 PLOT 3 TRT R QUADS 34 and 36, originally BLOCK 1 PLOT 3 TRT R, changed BLOCK 1 to BLOCK 2.  For Grass BLOCK 3 PLOT 4 TRT C, originally recorded as Creosote Site, changed to Grass Site. For Grass BLOCK 4 PLOT 2 TRT C, originally recorded as Creosote Site, changed to Grass Site. - Any empty cells were filled in with either a period for missing data or an NA for not applicable. - Terri Koontz 03/14/06  - Checked data for missing data points, doubles, and errors. Missing data points were recorded using -999 (human Error), duplicates of data points were removed, and errors were corrected. If a data point contained a measurement of zero and a measurement with a count, the zero observation was removed. - Date MM/DD/YY field was changed to just DATE. BLOCK field was changed to BLK. - Changed dates to reflect that data was measured in 2002 and not in the 1970s. - Changed to "1" in the EC field with comments. - Any empty cells were filled in with -999 (human Error) for missing data or an NA for not applicable. - Yang Xia 03/15/06  - For the Spring field season at the Creosote site, Plots missing are BLK 1 Plot 1 Trt C and BLK 3 Plot 3 Trt C. These plots are added to the dataset as missing values. - Metadata was modified to correct format. - Yang Xia 03/23/06  - changed start date from september 1995 to May 1995 in the research Hypotheses, since the data collection was starting on 05/02/95.  - Yang Xia 05/02/06  - Checked data for missing data points, doubles, and errors. Missing data points were recorded using -999 (human Error), duplicates of data points were removed, and errors were corrected. If a data point contained a measurement of zero and a measurement with a count, the zero observation was removed. - Date MM/DD/YY field was changed to just DATE. BLOCK field was changed to BLK. - Changed dates to reflect that data was measured in 2003 and not in the 1970s. for the data of measured in August, changed to October.  - Changed to "1" in the EC field with comments. - Any empty cells were filled in with -999 (human Error) for missing data or an NA for not applicable. - Yang Xia 06/12/06  - Checked data for missing data points, doubles, and errors.  Missing data points were recorded using -999 (human Error), duplicates of data points were removed, and errors were corrected. If a data point contained a measurement of zero and a measurement with a count, the zero observation was removed. - Date MM/DD/YY field was changed to just DATE. BLOCK field was changed to BLK. - Changed dates to reflect that data was measured in 2004 and not in the 1970s and 1990s.  - Changed to "1" in the EC field with comments. - Any empty cells were filled in with -999 (human Error) for missing data or an NA for not applicable. - Yang Xia 06/14/06  - Modified metadata to correct format. - For Creosote Site in the Spring, changed BLOCK 4 PLOT 1 TRT C QUAD 17-21 to BLOCK 4 PLOT 1 TRL L QUAD 17-21. - For Grassland in the Spring, changed BLOCK 4 PLOT 1 TRT C QUAD 31-36 TO BLOCK 4 PLOT 1 TRT R QUAD 31-36. - Yang Xia 06/26/06  - Checked data for missing data points, doubles, and errors. Missing data points were recorded using -999 (human Error), duplicates of data points were removed, and errors were corrected. If a data point contained a measurement of zero and a measurement with a count, the zero observation was removed. - Date MM/DD/YY field was changed to just DATE. BLOCK field was changed to BLK. Tapeid was changed ID #. - Any empty cells were filled in with -999 (human Error) for missing data or an NA for not applicable. - Yang Xia 07/03/06  - Modified metadata to correct format.  - An NA for not applicable in the EC field for 2005. - Yang Xia
Contact:
Position Title: Information Manager
Organization: LTER Network Office
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: UNM Biology Department, MSC03-2020
Delivery Address: 1 University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Locality: NM
Postal Code: 87131-0001
Phone: USA
Phone: 505 277-2535
Phone: 505 277-2541
Email: tech-support@lternet.edu
URL: http://www.lternet.edu
Contact:
Individual: Information Manager Sevilleta LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: 1 University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Postal Code: 87131
Phone: US
Phone: (505) 277-2109
Phone: (505) 277.5355
Email: data-use@sevilleta.unm.edu
Publisher:
Organization: Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Project
URL: http://sev.lternet.edu
Publication Place: Sevilleta LTER
Method Step:
Description:
Experimental Design:  There are 2 study sites, the Five Points grassland site, and the Rio Salado creosotebush site. Each study site is 1 km by 0.5 km in area. Three rodent trapping webs and four replicate experimental blocks of plots are randomly located at each study site to measure vegetation responses to the exclusion of small mammals. Each block of plots is 96 meters on each side. Each block of plots consists of 4 experimental study plots, each occupying 1/4 of each block. The blocks of study plots are all oriented on a site in a X/Y coordinate system, with the top to the north. Treatments within each block include one unfenced control plot (Treatment: C), one plot fenced with hardware cloth and poultry wire to exclude rodents and rabbits (Treatment: R), and one plot fenced only with poultry wire to exclude rabbits (Treatment: L). The three treatments were randomly assigned to each of the four possible plots in each block independently, and their arrangements differ from block to block. Each of the three plots in a replicate block are separated by 20 meters.  Each experimental measurement plot measures 36 meters by 36 meters. A grid of 36 sampling points are positioned at 5.8-meter intervals on a systematically located 6 by 6 point grid within each plot. A permanent one-meter by one-meter vegetation measurement quadrat is located at each of the 36 points. The 36 quadrats are numbered 1-36, starting with number 1 in the top left corner (north-west) of each plot (top being north), and running left (west) to right (east), then down (south) one row, and then right (east) to left (west), and so on Quadrat/rebar number one is in the northwest corner of each plot, and numbers 1-6 are across the north side of the plot west to east, then quadrat/rebar number 7 is just south of quadrat/rebar number 6, and rebar numbers increase 7-12 east to west, and so on. 3-inch nails were originally placed in the top left (north-west) corner of each quadrat. These may be difficult to see. A 3-meter wide buffer area is situated between the grid of 36 points and the perimeter of each plot. While measuring vegetation on each quad, the total number of rabbit feces (pellets) that  were see on each quadrat was counted and recorded.
Data Table:
Entity Name: sev091_smesrabbit_20160308.csv
Entity Description: Data for SEV091
Object Name: sev091_smesrabbit_20160308.csv
Size: 666118
Data Format:
Text Format:
Number of Header Lines: 1
Record Delimiter: \r\n
Attribute Orientation: column
Simple Delimited:
Field Delimiter: ,
Quote Character: "
Distribution:
Online:
URL: https://pasta.lternet.edu/package/data/eml/knb-lter-sev/91/144612/7bfa5ba904a3acc080f822c85927935a
Coverage:
Temporal Coverage:
Date Range:
Begin Date:
Calendar Date: 1995-05-02
End Date:
Calendar Date: 2005-10-19
Attribute List:
Attribute Name: DATE
Attribute Label: DATE
Attribute Definition: Date of data collection
Storage Type: date
Measurement Scale:
Datetime:
Format String: MM/DD/YYYY
Attribute Name: SITE
Attribute Label: SITE
Attribute Definition: The site at which data was collected.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Enumerated Domain:
Code Definition:
Code: C
Definition: Rio Salado creosote site
Code Definition:
Code: G
Definition: Black grama site
Attribute Name: BLOCK
Attribute Label: BLOCK
Attribute Definition: Experimental block.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: Experimental block.
Attribute Name: PLOT
Attribute Label: PLOT
Attribute Definition: Plot within study design.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: Plot within study design.
Attribute Name: TRT
Attribute Label: TRT
Attribute Definition: Treatment that was prescribed to the plot.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Enumerated Domain:
Code Definition:
Code: C
Definition: Control
Code Definition:
Code: L
Definition: Lagomorph exclosure
Code Definition:
Code: R
Definition: Rodent and Lagomorph exclosure
Attribute Name: QUAD
Attribute Label: QUAD
Attribute Definition: Quadrat that data were recorded from.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: Quadrat that data were recorded from.
Attribute Name: COUNT
Attribute Label: COUNT
Attribute Definition: Number of rabbit (cottontail and jackrabbit) fecal pellets counted on each quadrat.
Measurement Scale:
Ratio:
Unit:
Custom Unit: count
Precision: 1
Numeric Domain:
Number Type: real
Missing Value Code:
Code: -999
Code Explanation: missing
Attribute Name: ID#
Attribute Label: ID#
Attribute Definition: Identification code that is given with each data point to identify data collector, year, and season data were collected.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: Identification code that is given with each data point to identify data collector, year, and season data were collected.