Summary Information
Ecosystem-Scale Rainfall Manipulation in a Piñon-Juniper Forest at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico: Volumetric Water Content (VWC) at 5 cm Depth Data (2006- )
Creator:
Individual: William Pockman
Organization: SEV LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: Department of Biology, MSC03 2020, 1 University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Locality: NM
Postal Code: 87131
Email: pockman@unm.edu
System ID: 12857
Creator:
Individual: Nathan McDowell
Organization: SEV LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: Earth and Environmental Sciences, LANL
City: Los Alamos
Locality: NM
Email: mcdowell@lanl.gov
Associated Party:
Individual: Robert Pangle
Organization: SEV LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: Dept. of Biology, Room 137, Castetter Hall, University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Locality: NM
Postal Code: 87131
Email: robert.pangle@gmail.com
Role: data manager
Associated Party:
Individual: Enrico Yepez
Organization: SEV LTER
Email: yepezglz@itson.mx
Role: field crew
Associated Party:
Individual: Jennifer Plaut
Organization: SEV LTER
Email: jplaut@unm.edu
Role: field crew
Associated Party:
Individual: Robert Pangle
Organization: SEV LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: Dept. of Biology, Room 137, Castetter Hall, University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Locality: NM
Postal Code: 87131
Email: robert.pangle@gmail.com
Role: field crew
Associated Party:
Individual: Nathan Gehres
Organization: SEV LTER
Email: gehresn@hotmail.com
Role: field crew
Associated Party:
Individual: Amanda Boutz
Organization: SEV LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: ,
Postal Code: 0
Email: aboutz@unm.edu
System ID: 15592
Role: field crew
Associated Party:
Individual: Patrick Hudson
Organization: SEV LTER
Email: husdon.patrick.j@gmail.com
Role: field crew
Associated Party:
Individual: Ben Specter
Organization: SEV LTER
Email: ben_specter@yahoo.com
Role: field crew
Publication Date: 2013
Language: english
Abstract:
Climate models predict that water limited regions around the world will become drier and warmer in the near future, including southwestern North America. We developed a large-scale experimental system that allows testing of the ecosystem impacts of precipitation changes. Four treatments were applied to 1600 m2 plots (40 m × 40 m), each with three replicates in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniper monosperma) ecosystem. These species have extensive root systems, requiring large-scale manipulation to effectively alter soil water availability.  Treatments consisted of: 1) irrigation plots that receive supplemental water additions, 2) drought plots that receive 55% of ambient rainfall, 3) cover-control plots that receive ambient precipitation, but allow determination of treatment infrastructure artifacts, and 4) ambient control plots. Our drought structures effectively reduced soil water potential and volumetric water content compared to the ambient, cover-control, and water addition plots. Drought and cover control plots experienced an average increase in maximum soil and air temperature at ground level of 1-4° C during the growing season compared to ambient plots, and concurrent short-term diurnal increases in maximum air temperature were also observed directly above and below plastic structures. Our drought and irrigation treatments significantly influenced tree predawn water potential, sap-flow, and net photosynthesis, with drought treatment trees exhibiting significant decreases in physiological function compared to ambient and irrigated trees.  Supplemental irrigation resulted in a significant increase in both plant water potential and xylem sap-flow compared to trees in the other treatments. This experimental design effectively allows manipulation of plant water stress at the ecosystem scale, permits a wide range of drought conditions, and provides prolonged drought conditions comparable to historical droughts in the past – drought events for which wide-spread mortality in both these species was observed.  Obviously, one of the important areas of interest in this experiment was the effects of elevated (greater-than-average) and decreased (less-than-average) precipitation levels on soil moisture.  The volumetric water content of the soil was monitored across all twelve plots, all four treatment types, and all three cover types.  The record created through these monitoring activities not only noted the initial “wetting-up” of the soil after a precipitation event but also tracked the “drying-down” of the soil after the event.  The water content of the soil and its associated storage capacity could then provide a frame of reference in which changes in the physiological properties of our two target tree species, such as water potential and sapflow rate, could be interpreted. 
Keywords:
Keyword: inorganic nutrients
Keyword: populations
Keyword Thesaurus: Core Areas
Keywords:
Keyword: communities
Keyword: plant communities
Keyword: populations
Keyword: meteorology
Keyword: biology
Keyword: physiology
Keyword: plant physiology
Keyword: ecology
Keyword: forest ecology
Keyword: disturbances
Keyword: droughts
Keyword: measurements
Keyword: ecosystem properties
Keyword: precipitation
Keyword: water content
Keyword: soil water content
Keyword: terrestrial
Keyword: montane
Keyword: methods
Keyword: field methods
Keyword: processes
Keyword: physiological processes
Keyword: disturbance
Keyword: ecosystems
Keyword: terrestrial ecosystems
Keyword: forest ecosystems
Keyword: forests
Keyword: organisms
Keyword: plants
Keyword: trees
Keyword: vegetation
Keyword Thesaurus: LTER Controlled Vocabulary
Additional Information:
The VWC_5cm depth data-set contains 15 minute interval data from 2006 thru 2012.   Data Qa/Qc has been performed on these files.   PJ day refers to days since start of project (i.e., 1/1/2006).   PJ Timestamp denotes/records each 15 minute interval entry from 1/1/2006.The treatment classes provided in the file are as follows; ambient control (1), drought (2), cover control (3), and irrigation (4).  The experiment used plot aspect as the blocking factor.   There are 3 different replicate blocks and block classifications designated in the files; flat aspect (1), north aspect (2), and south aspect (3).  This will be obvious when viewing the files.Values are reported in decimal % (in other words, a 0.25 data entry = 25%).  There are three cover types within each plot; 1) VWC (5cm) data under Piñon canopy cover, 2) VWC (5cm) under juniper canopy cover, and 3) VWC (5cm) at inter-canopy locations (i.e., bare, no canopy cover).  The VWC (5cm) data was collected from probes installed/buried at 5cm soil depth.Detailed information on VWC-5cm header columns for the Tree_Number, SensorID, Species, and Sensor_Location variables.  Tree_Number refers to the label given to each sensor probe (i.e., it is installed beneath a specific target tree or a bare inter-canopy location).  The SensorID is an identifier that provides both the Tree_Number information and the soil depth of the probe.  Species indicates the cover type where the measurement was made; PIED, JUMO, or bare ground/intercanopy (INCA).   And the Sensor_Location simply indicates the depth where the soil moisture (VWC) probe is installed.   Tree numbers are always grouped by species as follows (regardless of plot); Trees 1-5 are original Pinus edulis, Trees 6-10 are original Juniper monosperma.  B1 through B5 always designate an inter-canopy (i.e., bare) location.  Note, for the VWC_5cm data – there are no or very few “replacement” trees.  All (or most all) VWC_5cm measurements were made original target trees, i,e., the sensor installation positions/locations remained in their original locations regardless of any later tree death or mortality.Similar to the Sapflow-JS data, there may be differing tree labels (and sample sizes, i.e., n=3, n=4, or n=5) for each cover type in differing plots depending on; 1) the specific target trees under which measurements were made, and 2) the total number of target trees in a given plot under which soil moisture probes were installed (this varies from n=3 to n=5 per cover type for differing plots).    This will be obvious when you view the files for different plots.
Intellectual Rights:
Data Policies
This dataset is released to the public and may be freely downloaded. Please keep the designated Contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement of the Sevilleta LTER. Datasets must be cited as in the example below. Muldavin, E. 2004. Sevilleta LTER Fertilizer NPP Study Dataset. Albuquerque, NM: Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research Site Database: SEV155. (Date of download) A copy of any publications using these data must be supplied to the Sevilleta LTER Information Manager.
Distribution:
Online:
URL: http://sev.lternet.edu/node/6842
Coverage:
Geographic Goverage:
Geographic Description: Location: Site situated on the eastern flank of Los Pinos Mountains, approx. 3 miles south of NM state route 60, directly adjacent to the eastern boundary of the Sevillets USFWS National Refuge. Landform: Located at the base of the eastern flank of the Los Pinos Mountains. Slope varies from 0-2% in experimental plots situated in level portions of the site, with steeper grades ranging from 6-18% for plots established on hill-slopes., Soils: Soil texture analysis across the site (both hill-slope and flat/level topography) revealed surface soils that are predominately silt loam with; (1) a transition to sandy loam texture at depth, and (2) a significant percentage of coarse fragments present both at the soil surface and throughout the profile. Soil depth across the site ranges from 20 to ≥ 100 cm, with shallower soil depths occurring on hill-slopes where depth to caliche and/or bed-rock is only 20-30 cm in some instances. , Hydrology: Well drained., Vegetation: The site is a piñon pine (Pinus edulis, Engelm.) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.) woodland, with several other commonly observed woody shrub species present, notably; Mahonia spp. (algerita), Falugia paradoxa (Apache plume), Quercus turbinella (shrub live oak), and Rhus spp. (sumac). Multiple species of cacti and agave (Cylindropuntia spp., Opuntia spp., and Yucca spp.) are present, along with numerous species of perennial grasses and forbs; including an extensive inter-canopy coverage by grasses of the genus Bouteloua. , Climate: Climate records (20-yr) from a nearby Sevilleta LTER meteorological station (Cerro Montoso #42; http://sev.lternet.edu/) indicate a mean annual precipitation total of 362.7 mm/yr. The region is strongly influenced by the North American Monsoon, with a large fraction of annual precipitation occurring in July, August, and September when monsoon circulation is active. Mean annual temperature (20-yr) at this nearby LTER site was 12.78 C, with a mean July maximum of 31.08 C and a mean December minimum of 3.38 C. ,
Bounding Coordinates:
West Bounding Coordinates: -106.5294
East Bounding Coordinates: -106.5294
North Bounding Coordinates: 34.3864
South Bounding Coordinates: 34.3864
Bounding Altitude:
Altitude Minimum: 1911
Altitude Maximum: 1911
Altitude Units: meter
Temporal Coverage:
Date Range:
Begin Date:
Calendar Date: 2006-01-01
End Date:
Calendar Date: 2012-12-31
Contact:
Position Title: Information Manager
Organization: LTER Network Office
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: UNM Biology Department, MSC03-2020
Delivery Address: 1 University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Locality: NM
Postal Code: 87131-0001
Phone: USA
Phone: 505 277-2535
Phone: 505 277-2541
Email: tech-support@lternet.edu
URL: http://www.lternet.edu
Contact:
Individual: William Pockman
Organization: SEV LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: Department of Biology, MSC03 2020, 1 University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Locality: NM
Postal Code: 87131
Email: pockman@unm.edu
System ID: 12857
Contact:
Individual: Robert Pangle
Organization: SEV LTER
Physical Address:
Delivery Address: Dept. of Biology, Room 137, Castetter Hall, University of New Mexico
City: Albuquerque
Locality: NM
Postal Code: 87131
Email: robert.pangle@gmail.com
Publication Place: Sevilleta LTER
Method Step:
Description:
Site DescriptionThe study utilized four different experimental treatments applied in three replicate blocks. The four experimental treatments included 1) un-manipulated, ambient control plots, 2) drought plots, 3) supplemental irrigation plots, and 4) cover-control plots that have a similar infrastructure to the drought plots, but remove no precipitation.  The three replicated blocks differed in their slope and aspect. One block of four plots was located on south facing slopes, one on north facing slopes, and one in a flat area of the landscape.   Experimental Treatment Design (see Pangle et al. 2012 for detailed methodology)To effectively reduce water availability to trees, we installed treatments of sufficient size to minimize tree water uptake from outside of the plot.  Thus, we constructed three replicated drought structures that were 40 m × 40 m (1600 m2). We targeted a 50% reduction in ambient precipitation through water removal troughs that covered ~50% of the land surface area. Drought plot infrastructure was positioned to insure that targeted Piñon pine and juniper were centrally located within each drought plot to provide the maximum distance between tree stems and the nearest plot boundary.  Each drought and cover-control plot consists of 27 parallel troughs running across the 40 m plot. Each trough was constructed with overlapping 3ft ×10 ft (0.91 m × 3.05 m) pieces of thermoplastic polymer sheets (Makloron SL Polycarbonate Sheet, Sheffield Plastics Inc, Sheffield, MA) fixed with self-tapping metal screws to horizontal rails that are approximately waist height and are supported by vertical posts every 2.5-3.5 m. The plastic sheets were bent into a concave shape to collect and divert the precipitation off of the plot. The bending and spacing of the plastic resulted in 0.81 m (32 in) troughs separated by 0.56 m (22 in) walkways.  Individual troughs often intersected the canopy of trees because of their height. The troughs were installed as close to the bole of the tree as possible without damaging branches in order to maximize the area covered by the plastic across the entire plot. An end-cap was attached to the downstream edge of the trough to prevent water from falling onto the base of the tree.  A piece of 3 in (7.62 cm) PVC pipe or suction hose (used when the bole of a tree was directly below trough) was then attached to the downstream side of the end-cap, enabling water to flow into the trough on the other side of a tree. End-caps were also placed at the downhill end of the troughs on the edge of the plot and fitted with 90 degree fittings to divert water down into a 30 cm2 gutter (open on top) that ran perpendicular to the plot. Collected water was then channeled from the gutter into adjacent arroyos for drainage away from the study area. We built cover-control infrastructures to investigate the impact of the plastic drought structures independent of changes in precipitation. This was necessary because of the high radiation environment in central New Mexico, in which the clear plastic troughs can effectively act as a greenhouse structure. The cover-control treatment had the same dimensions as the drought plots with one key difference. The plastic was attached to the rails in a convex orientation so precipitation would fall on top of the plastic and then drain directly down onto the plot. The cover-control plots were designed to receive the same amount of precipitation as un-manipulated ambient plots, with the precipitation falling and draining into the walkways between the rows of troughs. Cover-control plots were constructed between June-21-07 and July-24-07; drought plots were constructed between August-09-07 and August-27-07.  The total plastic coverage in each plot is 45% ± 1% of the 1600 m2 plot area due to the variable terrain and canopy cover. Our irrigation system consisted of above-canopy sprinkler nozzles configured to deliver supplemental rainstorm event(s) at a rate of 19 mm hr-1. Our irrigation system is a modified design of the above-canopy irrigation system outlined by Munster et al. (2006). Each of the three irrigation plots has three 2750 gal (10.41 m3) water storage tanks connected in parallel.  These tanks were filled with filtered reverse osmosis (RO) water brought to the site with multiple tractor-trailer trucks. During irrigation events, water is pumped from the tanks through a series of hoses attached to 16 equally-spaced sprinklers within the plot. Each sprinkler is 6.1 m (20 ft) tall (2-3 m higher than mean tree height), and fitted with a sprinkler nozzle that creates an even circular distribution of water with a radius of 5 m on the ground.  The irrigation systems were tested in October 2007 (2 mm supplemental), and full applications (19 mm) were applied in 2008 on 24-June, 15-July, and 26-August. During subsequent years (2009-2012), a total of four to six irrigation events (19mm each) were applied (please contact Will Pockman and/or Robert Pangle for specific application dates and rates).    Site Abiotic MonitoringSite Abiotic Monitoring (please see Pangle et al. 2012 for more detailed methodology) We used Campbell Scientific dataloggers to continuously monitor and record abiotic conditions and physiological measurements across the site. All systems were connected to a solar-powered wireless network with NL100 relays (Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT). Plots were instrumented with CR-1000, CR-7, and CR-10X dataloggers (Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT). Each CR-1000 datalogger was accompanied by AM25T and AM 16/32 multiplexers to expand sensor measurement capacity (Campbell Scientific, Logan, UT). Abiotic conditions were measured under each cover type (n=3-5 locations per cover type): under piñon, juniper, and intercanopy areas between trees. These measurements included; a) soil temperature (TS) at –5 cm depth and shielded air temperature (TA) at 10 cm (above soil surface), both measured with 24 gauge Type–T thermocouples (Omega, Stamford, CT), b) shallow soil volumetric water content (VWC) at –5 cm measured using EC-20 ECH2O probes (Decagon, Pullman, WA), and c) soil VWC at depth using EC-5 soil moisture probes (Decagon, Pullman, WA). Soil VWC profiles had sensors installed at –15 cm, –20 cm, and as deep as possible (down to –100 cm, depending on soil conditions).
Quality Control:
Description:
Data processing and QA-QC were performed using either Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) or Microsoft Office 2010 Excel (Microsoft Corporation) software.  All raw and/or processed data traces were visually plotted and inspected for noisy, erroneous, or out of range data points or sensors traces.  All removed data points had a “NaN” value assigned.   Despite this QA-QC review and data cleaning, all data sets should still be evaluated for outliers, etc., as standard outlier statistical tests were not performed.
Data Table:
Entity Name: sev276_pj5cmVWC06_20140110.csv
Object Name: sev276_pj5cmVWC06_20140110.csv
Data Format:
Text Format:
Number of Header Lines: 1
Number of Footer Lines: 0
Record Delimiter: \n
Attribute Orientation: column
Simple Delimited:
Field Delimiter: ,
Distribution:
Online:
URL: https://pasta.lternet.edu/package/data/eml/knb-lter-sev/276/383567/dfd351569969cca02ef54c29dfdec28c
Coverage:
Temporal Coverage:
Calendar Date: 2013-04-18
Attribute List:
Attribute Name: Year
Attribute Label: Year
Attribute Definition: The year in which the data were collected.
Storage Type: date
Measurement Scale:
Datetime:
Format String: YYYY
Attribute Name: Month
Attribute Label: Month
Attribute Definition: The month in which data were collected.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: The month in which data were collected.
Attribute Name: Day
Attribute Label: Day
Attribute Definition: The numeric designation for the day of the month on which the measurement was taken. The numbers range from 1 to 31.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: The numeric designation for the day of the month on which the measurement was taken. The numbers range from 1 to 31.
Attribute Name: The hour and minute time interval associated with the measurement
Attribute Label: HrMin
Attribute Definition: The hour and minute designation of the time interval during which the measurement was taken. The time intervals are 15 minutes in length and range from 0 to 2345
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: The hour and minute designation of the time interval during which the measurement was taken. The time intervals are 15 minutes in length and range from 0 to 2345
Attribute Name: Day of Year
Attribute Label: Julian_day
Attribute Definition: The numeric designation for the day of the year on which the measurement was taken. Values range from 1 to 365 (366 in a leap year)
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: The numeric designation for the day of the year on which the measurement was taken. Values range from 1 to 365 (366 in a leap year)
Attribute Name: Day of Year
Attribute Label: decimal_Julian_day
Attribute Definition: Numeric expression that provides the time of day expressed as a decimal along with the calendar day of year. Example; 365.5 would represent December 31st at 12 noon
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: Numeric expression that provides the time of day expressed as a decimal along with the calendar day of year. Example; 365.5 would represent December 31st at 12 noon
Attribute Name: PJ_day
Attribute Label: PJ_day
Attribute Definition: The numeric designation for the day that a measurement was taken since project initiation. The initial PJ day was day 1 for the project (1/1/2006) and the count does not restart at the end of the calendar year. Example; 1/1/2006 is PJ_day #1 and 12/31/2012 is PJ_day # 2557.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: The numeric designation for the day that a measurement was taken since project initiation. The initial PJ day was day 1 for the project (1/1/2006) and the count does not restart at the end of the calendar year. Example; 1/1/2006 is PJ_day #1 and 12/31/2012 is PJ_day # 2557.
Attribute Name: decimal_PJ_day
Attribute Label: decimal_PJ_day
Attribute Definition: A unique date/time identifier which provides the PD_day and decimal time of day in one numerical expression
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: A unique date/time identifier which provides the PD_day and decimal time of day in one numerical expression
Attribute Name: PJ_Timestamp
Attribute Label: PJ_Timestamp
Attribute Definition: Numeric value used as a unique designator for each 15-minute measurement interval starting on 1/1/2006. The values for PJ_Timestamp currently range from 1 to 245472.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: Numeric value used as a unique designator for each 15-minute measurement interval starting on 1/1/2006. The values for PJ_Timestamp currently range from 1 to 245472.
Attribute Name: plot number
Attribute Label: plot
Attribute Definition: the number designation for each experimental plot (ranging from 1 to 12)
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: the number designation for each experimental plot (ranging from 1 to 12)
Attribute Name: treatment
Attribute Label: treatment
Attribute Definition: designates the experimental treatment applied to each plot, which is one of ambient control, drought, cover control, or irrigation
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: designates the experimental treatment applied to each plot, which is one of ambient control, drought, cover control, or irrigation
Attribute Name: class of treatment
Attribute Label: treatment_class
Attribute Definition: class factor for treatments; 1=ambient control, 2=drought, 3=cover control, 4= irrigation
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Enumerated Domain:
Code Definition:
Code: 1
Definition: ambient control
Code Definition:
Code: 2
Definition: drought
Code Definition:
Code: 3
Definition: cover control
Code Definition:
Code: 4
Definition: irrigation
Attribute Name: replicate_block
Attribute Label: replicate_block
Attribute Definition: Designates the slope aspect of each replicate block, which is one of flat aspect, north aspect, or south aspect
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: Designates the slope aspect of each replicate block, which is one of flat aspect, north aspect, or south aspect
Attribute Name: Class of block
Attribute Label: block_class
Attribute Definition: Classification variable for replicate blocks; 1 = flat aspect, 2 = north aspect, 3 = south aspect
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Enumerated Domain:
Code Definition:
Code: 1
Definition: flat aspect
Code Definition:
Code: 2
Definition: north aspect
Code Definition:
Code: 3
Definition: south aspect
Attribute Name: Tree Number
Attribute Label: Tree_Number
Attribute Definition: Tree_Number designates the target tree for which data is provided. e.g. "T1"
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: Tree_Number designates the target tree for which data is provided. e.g. "T1"
Attribute Name: SensorID
Attribute Label: SensorID
Attribute Definition: SensorID designates the location ID where the temperature measurement was made for the PJ Project. For instance, T1, T4, and B2 refer to Tree 1, Tree 4, and Bare area 2, respectively.
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Text Domain:
Definition: SensorID designates the location ID where the temperature measurement was made for the PJ Project. For instance, T1, T4, and B2 refer to Tree 1, Tree 4, and Bare area 2, respectively.
Attribute Name: species
Attribute Label: species
Attribute Definition: designates the species cover type of each value (PIED, JUMO, or bare inter-canopy)
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Enumerated Domain:
Code Definition:
Code: JUMO
Definition: Juniperus monosperma
Code Definition:
Code: PIED
Definition: Pinus edulis
Code Definition:
Code: INCA
Definition: bare inter-canopy
Attribute Name: volumetric water content
Attribute Label: VWC
Attribute Definition: The volumetric water content (VWC) of the soil in decimal %
Measurement Scale:
Ratio:
Unit:
Custom Unit: decimalPercent
Precision: 0.001
Numeric Domain:
Number Type: real
Attribute Name: Sensor_Location
Attribute Label: Sensor_Location
Attribute Definition: designates whether a temperature measurement is soil versus air
Storage Type: string
Measurement Scale:
Nominal:
Non Numeric Domain:
Enumerated Domain:
Code Definition:
Code: Soil
Definition: sensor is in soil
Code Definition:
Code: Air
Definition: sensor is in air